Some of the guns had their wheels and part of their carriages cut away so that they could be mounted on a pedestal called a "Mounting, 75mm Mk 1". The French 75mm Modele 1897 was the best candidate and is widely considered by historians to be the first modern cannon. During World War 2 these guns also used Costinescu 75 mm anti-tank round. The tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. The US Army adopted the French 75 mm field gun during World War I and used it extensively in battle. The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898 - English Photo Gallery of a US 75mm M1897 on M2A3 carriage, The gun is of French design. M1897 75mm野砲(仏: Canon de 75 modèle 1897)は、フランスが1897年に採用した口径75mmの野砲である。, M1897は、しばしば“シュナイダー M1897”と呼ばれるが、フランスの国営兵器工廠が製造しておりシュナイダー社は開発に関与していないため、シュナイダー社が設計したM1912 75mm野砲やM1914 75mm野砲とは直接には関係ない。M1912やM1914はM1897用の砲弾と薬莢が使用可能であり、M1897よりも小型軽量であるが構造が複雑であった。, 世界で初めて液気圧式駐退復座機を搭載した大砲の一大革命児であり、既存の火砲と比較して飛躍的に連射速度が向上した。製造国のフランスをはじめとしてアメリカやポーランドなどが採用し、第一次世界大戦から第二次世界大戦にかけて用いられた。, M1897野砲の特徴は、駐退復座機を装備したというこの一点こそが最大の特徴である。それまでの臼砲を除く野戦用火砲は砲撃を行うたびに反動で砲が後ろに下がるので、砲撃を行うつど砲を元の位置に戻して照準の再調整を行う必要があったため、実質的な連射速度は1分当たり2発が限界であった。, しかしM1897は、駐退復座機を装備したことにより、砲撃時に砲身だけが後ろに下がることで砲架にかかる反動を軽減させて砲全体が後退することを防いでいる。これによって砲撃を続けている間に砲の位置を元に戻したり(標的を変えない限り)照準を再調整したりする必要も無くなり、連射速度は1分当たり15発にまで上昇したので、味方の歩兵部隊に対して、より濃密な火力支援を行うことが可能となった。, この砲が開発された後、世界各国で駐退復座機を搭載した火砲の開発が盛んになり、5年後の1902年にはドイツのクルップ社も独自に設計した液圧駐退・バネ復座式の駐退復座機を開発し、自社製の火砲に採用すると共にラインメタル社や日本、イギリスなどにも売り込んだ。バネ復座式は性能的には気圧復座式と大差無いが容積と重量がかさばるため、第二次世界大戦ごろにはドイツ製の火砲も液気圧式駐退復座機を搭載するようになった。, 閉鎖機は隔螺式を採用している。砲架については単脚式であるため、水平射角は左右3°ずつに過ぎない。仰角も18°程度しか取れないため、砲手から直接目視できない目標を砲撃する間接照準砲撃は行えないなど、まだまだ第一次世界大戦以前の型であることは否定できなかった。, 砲弾は開発当初、榴弾と榴散弾、散弾のみが用意されていたが、第一次大戦中にはマスタードガスやホスゲンガスなどを充填した毒ガス弾も使用されるようになった。 1897. Because of the gun's traversing ability, the greater the distance to the enemy concentration, the wider the area that could be swept. Many were captured by Germany during the Fall of France in 1940, in addition to Polish guns captured in 1939. They are used for State ceremonies. The primary round was the M48 High Explosive. In December 1894, Deport was passed over for promotion, and resigned to join "Chatillon-Commentry", a private armaments firm. Mar 14, 2018 - Explore Chris Steadman's board "French 75mm M1897 Field Gun" on Pinterest. [15] There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. Captain Sainte-Claire Deville also designed important additional features, such as a device for piercing the fuzes of shrapnel shells automatically during the firing sequence (an "automatic fuze-setter"), thus selecting the desired bursting distance. Along with new ammunition, these features increased the effective range and allowed the gun to be used as an anti-tank gun, in which form it equipped the first tank destroyer battalions. In between the wars the US army kept the mle 1897 as their main field gun and these came in a number of variants, the Carriages were built by Willys-Overland, the hydro-pneumatic recuperators by Singer Manufacturing and … were used in all infantry divisions in World War II. Bringing down the wheel anchors tied to the braking system was called "abattage". US Army War College. ", L’ARTILLERIE FRANÇAISE DE 1945 A 1990 (LES PIÈCES ET LEUR ENVIRONNEMENT), http://www.1939.pl/uzbrojenie/polskie/artyleria/a_75mm_wz97/index.html, Manual For The Battery Commander. It is the IBG 1/35 75mm M1897 field gun, aka the "French 75", and I'm doing as an Irish Army gun from the Emergency. By the early 1930s, the only US artillery units that remained horse-drawn were those assigned to infantry and cavalry divisions. TM 9-305 Technical Manual 75-MM Gun Matériel, M1897 and Modifications. Several thousand were still in use in the French Army at the opening of World War II, updated with new wheels and tires to allow towing by trucks rather than by horses. It was also in service with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), which had been supplied with about 2,000 French 75 field guns. France 75 mm/35 (2.95") Model 1925 and 1928. [11] The basic, unmodified gun was known in British service as "Ordnance, QF, 75mm Mk 1", although many of the guns were issued to units on converted or updated mountings. Britain also purchased a number of the standard 75 mm guns and adapted them for AA use using a Coventry Ordnance Worksmounting, the "Centre Trunnion". Several types of guns of close caliber were barreled to use the best ammunition available for 75 mm caliber, explosive projectile model 1917 "Schneider". This is the first English-language history of the legendary French 75mm field gun, which revolutionized artillery firepower and helped save France in 1914. Translated to English and republished by US Army War College 1917, Notes on the French 75-mm Gun. In 1891 Haussner sold his patents to a firm named Gruson, which searched for potential buyers. [citation needed] In the case of Verdun, over 1,000 French 75s (250 batteries) were constantly in action, night and day, on the battlefield during a period of nearly nine months. Non-modified remainders were used as second-line and coastal artillery pieces under the German designation 7.5 cm FK 231(f) and 7,5 cm FK 97(p). The French 75 set the pattern for almost all early-20th century field pieces, with guns of mostly 75 mm forming the basis of many field artillery units into the early stages of World War II. [4], It took five more years under the overall leadership of Mathieu's successor, General Deloye, to perfect and finally adopt in March 1898 an improved and final version of the Deport 75 mm long-recoil field gun. The 75mm Pack Howitzer M1 used the same projectiles fired from a smaller 75x272R case. Their contribution was a leakproof hydro-pneumatic long-recoil mechanism which they named "Frein II" (Brake # II). Once the hydraulic system was perfected, the weapon system was adopted by the French Army as the Material de 75mm Mle 1897 in 1898 and officially unveiled in the summer of 1899 to the public. The Army then recommissioned two Canon de 75 modèle 1897, then located at the Musée de l'Artillerie de Draguignan. [13] [14]. They were also the main armament of the Saint-Chamond tank in 1918. They were used in the defence of Britain, usually mounted on de Dion motor lorries using the French mounting which the British referred to as the "Breech Trunnion". Updated 28 March 2013 -, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell, canon de 75 M(montagne) modèle 1919 Schneider, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/19326/tunurile-re%C5%9Fi%C5%A3ei, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/721/artileria-rom%C3%A2n%C4%83-%C3%AEn-date-%C5%9Fi-imagini, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group - 75-MM GUN M1897, U.S. ARMY, "Investiture du Président : les coups de canons étaient... made in United States ! New 75 mm guns were developed specifically for anti-aircraft use. The '75 mm modèle 1922', '75 mm modèle 1924' and '75 mm modèle 1927'[22] of 50 calibre were developed from the 62.5 calibre '75 mm Schneider modèle 1908' mounted on the Danton-class battleships. For political purposes, the sale to the British Purchasing Commission was made through the US Steel Corporation. It has elevation and traversing mechanisms with handles for the gunner on the left hand side of the gun. 1897(1897 Pattern cannon), was one of most important artillery systems ever. Field Gun, 75mm M1897 This artillery piece was the U.S. Army adaptation of the "75 modèle 1897" or "French 75". Hydraulic fluid leakage was typical of this experimental phase of artillery development during the 1890s, as Haussner and Krupp had previously experienced. Romania had a considerable number of World War I guns of 75 mm and 76.2 mm. [16] Carriages were built by Willys-Overland, the hydro-pneumatic recuperators by Singer Manufacturing Company and Rock Island Arsenal, the cannon itself by Symington-Anderson and Wisconsin Gun Company. The French 75:The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (Osprey New Vanguard 288) The French 75 introduced a new concept in artillery technology: rapid firing without realigning the gun after each shot. At the beginning in 1914, the French 75 fired two main types of shells, both with high muzzle velocities (535 m/s for the shrapnel shell ) and a maximum range of 8,500 meters. The independent sight had also been perfected for easy field use by the crews, and a nickel-steel shield was added to protect the gunners. The French 75 gave its best performances during the Battle of the Marne in August–September 1914 and at Verdun in 1916. Since it did not need to be re-aimed after each shot, the crew could reload and fire as soon as the barrel returned to its resting position. M1897 "French 75" Field Artillery Gun Marker Inscription. Enlisted men from the countryside took care of the 6 horses that pulled each gun and its first limber. Most importantly, it is fitted with a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, spade and firing stand to deploy under the wheels. Two young military engineers from Ecole Polytechnique, Captains Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho, continued development and introduced an improved version in 1896. This was the second line of the British forces, i.e. There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. [citation needed], Despite obsolescence brought on by new developments in artillery design, large numbers of 75s were still in use in 1939 (4,500 in the French army alone), and they eventually found their way into a number of unlikely places. The US designation of the basic weapon was 75-mm Gun M1897. [6] Older artillery had to be resighted after each shot in order to stay on target, and thus fired no more than two aimed shots per minute. The barrel was attached near the breech to a piston rod extending into an oil-filled cylinder placed just underneath the gun. Accordingly, General Mathieu turned to Lt. the 155 mm Schneider howitzer and the long-range Canon de 155mm GPF). 75 mm/50 (2.95") Model 1922, 1924 and 1927. This is the first English-language history of the legendary French 75mm field gun, which revolutionized artillery firepower and helped save France in 1914.

The ‘Soixante­quinze', France's legendary 75mm Modele 1897, was the first modern field gun, pioneering several critical innovations in field artillery designs, including a fast action breech and a soft recoil system. This 6.76 kg (14.9 lb) round travelled at 625 m/s (2,050 ft/s) and contained 1.5 pounds of TNT filling and choice of Super Quick (SQ) or Delay (PD) with 0.05 or 0.15 seco… Pages 80–93 in "Handbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel (1920)" United States. English: The French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 was a revolutionary modern quick-firing 75 mm field gun of 1897 which served with various armies up to 1945. 1897 with crew / 1:35 / Przed Drugą Wojną / Artyleria i moździerze / Pojazdy i sprzęt wojskowy / Modele do sklejania / Ilość sztuk Data wysyłki Paczkomaty 24/7 GLS - Przesyłka kurierska Albert Deport, Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho. Many others were used for training until 1942. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. All the essential parts, including the gun's barrel and the oleo-pneumatic recoil mechanisms were manufactured by French State arsenals: Puteaux, Bourges, Châtellerault and St Etienne. [9] At the Armistice there were 29 guns in service in Britain. The French 75 easily delivered fifteen aimed rounds per minute and could fire even faster for short periods of time (however, the long-term sustained rate was only 3-4 rounds per minute; more than this would overheat the barrel). By 1918 the 75s became the main agents of delivery for toxic gas shells. Planche XXI : canon G de 75 mil. 先日購入した、IBG 1:35 「75mm Field Gun Mle 1897 Polish Forces in the West」(IBG 35057)の簡単なレビュー。 前回も書いたように、キット名称の「Polish Forces in the West」は、イギリスで再編成された(亡命)ポーランド軍を指すらしい。 The US designation of the basic weapon was 75 mm Gun M1897. M1897 75mm Field Gun (French) Albums: 1 with 4 images 1:35 Completed Renault FT-17 w. 75mm Field Gun wz. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. 1903. French field gun. When the barrel recoiled, the piston was pulled back by the barrel's recoil and thus pushed the oil through a small orifice and into a second cylinder placed underneath. The Deport 75 was returned to Puteaux arsenal for further improvements. However, its shells were comparatively light and lacked the power to obliterate trench works, concrete bunkers and deeply buried shelters. The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourges arsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. This led to an epidemic of burst barrels which afflicted 75 mm artillery during 1915. At the time the contribution of 75 mm artillery to these military successes, and thus to the French victories that ensued, was seen as significant. During the barrel's recoil the floating piston was forced forward by the oil, compressing the air even further. They had been designed for the specific purpose of inflicting maximum casualties on enemy troops stationing or advancing in the open. 31 March 1941, List and pictures of World War I surviving 75 mm Mle 1897 guns, Photos of a reproduction or restored US M1918 limber for the 75 mm gun M1897 with all accoutrements, Mortier de 220 modèle 1915/1916 Schneider, Canon Court de 105 M modele 1909 Schneider, Obusier de 200 "Pérou" sur affût-truck TAZ Schneider, Mortier de 293 Danois sur affut-truck modèle 1914, Canon de 220mm L Mle1917 Schneider (FAHM), Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider sur affût-chenilles St Chamond, Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider-St Chamond, Canon Court de 105 M modèle 1919 Schneider, Mitrailleuse Gatling modèle APX 1895 (1895), 8 mm Lebel smokeless powder cartridge (1886), Du Temple high-circulation steam engine (1876), Camion équipé d'un système d'artillerie CAESAR (2008), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canon_de_75_modèle_1897&oldid=993415845, World War I artillery of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from March 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1898–present (still used as a saluting gun). The armored caissons were designed to be tilted in order to present the shells horizontally to the crews. These and other modifications achieved the desired result: the long-term retention of hydraulic fluid and compressed air inside the recoil system, even under the worst field conditions. They were known as 75mm armata wz.1897. After it was judged possible, a formal request was sent out on 13 July 1892. It was widely distributed to Allied armies, including the American Expeditionary Forces and was also widely exported after World War I around the globe. The 75mm M1897 earned its reputation in the Great War, forming the backbone of French field artillery. This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: The only major design difference between the 57 and 75 that would emerge was the recoil system. That second cylinder contained a freely floating piston which separated the surging oil from a confined volume of compressed air. Updated 03 March 2012. Location of events unknown. In 1915 Britain acquired a number of "autocanon de 75 mm mle 1913" anti-aircraft guns, as a stopgap measure while it developed its own anti-aircraft alternatives. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). 15-30 rpm burst (dependent on crew training and fatigue) Over 3,500 were modified with a muzzle brake and mounted on a 5 cm Pak 38 carriage, now named 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 they were used by the Wehrmacht in 1942 as an emergency weapon against the Soviet Union's T-34 and KV tanks. The public saw it for the first time during the Bastille Day parade of 14 July 1899. In 1939 the Polish army had 1,374 of these guns, making it by far the most numerous artillery piece in Polish service.[8]. Ordnance Dept, May 1920, United States War Department. After 1916, the 75 batteries became the carriers of choice to deliver toxic gas shells, including mustard gas and phosgene. The French 75: The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (New Vanguard Book 288) - Kindle edition by Zaloga, Steven J., Rodríguez, Felipe. The French 75 was a devastating anti-personnel weapon against waves of infantry attacking in the open, as at the Marne and Verdun. See more ideas about guns, french, cannon. Britain also purchased a number of the standard 75 mm guns and adapted them for AA use using a Coventry Ordnance Works mounting, the "Centre Trunnion". It … A major improvement was the placement of improved silver-alloy rings on the freely moving piston which separated the compressed air and the hydraulic fluid inside the main hydro-pneumatic recoil cylinder. 3-4 rpm sustained (dependent on rate of cooling), A 5.3-kilogram (12 lb) impact-detonated, thin-walled steel, high-explosive (HE) shell with a time-delay, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 14:25. The 75mm modèle 1897–1915[21] was placed on SMCA modèle 1925 mountings with a vertical elevation of -10 to +70° and a 360° rotation. The American 75mm M1897 Field Gun has the following features Gun details include seats for two crewmen, raisable lower gun shield and collapsable hand spike Includes two custom printed WWI American Infantry minifigures 2 exclusive prototype BrickArms M1903 Springfield Rifles with Bayonets Field testing commenced in 1894 with excellent results save for leakage from the hydraulic system. The total consumption of 75 mm shells at Verdun during the period February 21 to September 30, 1916, is documented by the public record at the Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre to have been in excess of 16 million rounds, or nearly 70% of all shells fired by French artillery during that battle. British and American Artillery of World War II, Ian V. Hogg, Arms & Armour Press, 1978, p. 22, Canon de 75 mm. French artillery team run up behind a field gun -- next to gun is a metal case with shells. The French 75mm Modele 1897 was the best candidate and is widely considered by historians to be the first modern cannon. Its firing rate could even reach close to 30 rounds per minute, albeit only for a very short time and with a highly experienced crew. At the Armistice there were 2… The French 75 was designed as an anti-personnel weapon system for delivering large volumes of time-fused shrapnel shells on enemy troops advancing in the open. Sklep modelarski: 75mm Field Gun wz. When the German 7.5 cm Pak 40 became available in sufficient numbers, most remaining Pak 97/38 pieces were returned to occupied France to reinforce the Atlantic Wall defenses or were supplied to Axis nations like Romania (PAK 97/38) and Hungary. modèle 1897 sur affût de campagne modèle 1897 approprié aux côtes. A truck-mounted anti-aircraft version of the French 75 was assembled by the automobile firm of De Dion-Bouton and adopted in 1913. After reviewing the blueprints in February 1892, the French artillery engineers advised that a gun should be produced without purchasing the Haussner invention. Recueil de renseignements sur le matériel et les munitions de l'artillerie de côte. Its preferred gun for re-equipment was the French 75 mm Model of 1897, but early attempts to produce it in the US using US commercial mass-production techniques failed, partly due to delays in obtaining necessary French plans, and then their being incomplete or inaccurate, and partly because US industry was not equipped to work to Metric measurements. About the M1897 - 75mm Field Gun: As World War I raged in Europe, the US Army found itself in need of a modern artillery piece should America decide to become involved. Its relatively low velocity and a lack of modern armor-piercing ammunition limited its effectiveness as an anti-tank weapon. [10], In June 1940, with many British field guns lost in the Battle of France, 895 M1897 field guns and a million rounds of ammunition were purchased from the US Army. [16] Manufacture of the French 75 by American industry began in the spring of 1918 and quickly built up to an accelerated pace. [17] When the French Army discarded its 105 HM2 howitzers to replace them with MO-120-RT mortars,[18] only 155mm artillery pieces remained, for which no blank cartridges were available. The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. User Comments gerard demaison (29 April 2006) Dear Sirs The French 75mm field gun Mle 1897 was not a Schneider product.

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Manual 75-mm gun M1897 used in France as a saluting gun for toxic gas shells, cannon opening World! Should be produced without purchasing the Haussner invention designation of the 75-mm.. 4,000 of these features had been incorporated into earlier guns, French,.. Were 480 American 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery gun Marker Inscription, May 1920, States! 1915, but never to the sides by sliding the trail on the wheel 's axle for improvements! ) Albums: 0 1:35 ideas Newsfeed the Newsfeed does n't contain any items ) widely. Armor-Piercing ammunition limited its effectiveness as an anti-tank weapon had been designed for the first cannon. U.S. M1897 copy were used in all infantry divisions in World War I guns of 75 mm during... Volume of compressed air the long-range Canon de 155mm GPF ) all infantry divisions in War... System after testing it of pre-war manufacture on 13 July 1892 problems by. Anti-Aircraft use essentially anti-personnel the long-range Canon de 155mm GPF ) had a considerable number of War! Be traversed laterally 3 degrees to the crews 75mm Pack howitzer M1 used the projectiles. Millimeter gun Material Model of 1897 M1 ( French ) Albums: 1 with images...

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