The gargantuan Cleveland and Baltimore classes alone, by tonnage and armament, were made to outclass both in terms of quantity and quality, all the IJN could throw at the pacific fleet. The heavy cruiser genre was then brought to a logical degree of “upsizing” taking into account the reality that applied to all warships, ever larger and more powerful. The Boston class conversion consisted in modifying the superstructures and adding two RIM-2 Terrier missile launchers aft, with the main artillery kept intact forward. The Admiralty had thus in this design choose a compromise with the most powerful artillery possible (ten pieces) crammed on a strictly limited tonnage. Initially only four ships were ordered, followed by four others much later, and war broken out in the meantime, and so they come as completely redefined in the 1940s with a new rearmament program in a serie of 11 vessels, later curtailed. The barrels were sent to the Naval Gun Factory for processing, and Watervliet Arsenal until after 65% of this process was done, and then sent back to the Naval Gun Factory for final completion before delivery. The project was revived in 1941, with General Board Characteristics calling for twelve 6in DP guns, no 5in secondary battery, protection limited to a very thick deck (up to 6 or 7in) and a speed of at least 33kts. Indeed the first five ships had no 20 mm Oerlikon either at the start but a set of less popular 1.1-inch/75 (28 mm) quad “Chicago Piano” mounts. The Alaska “large cruisers” main caliber. This design work led to the definition of an internal compartmentation with an internal armor extending only around the superstructures and main turrets, called the “immune zone” using the all or nothing scheme already tried on battleships, and inspired from ancient protected cruisers. With 29 completed out of 52 keels laid down, 13 cancellations and 10 converted into fast aircraft carriers (USS Independence class), this was the new standard of USN “light” cruisers. See more ideas about heavy cruiser, warship, cruisers. 12.7 mm, 2×4 TLT 533 mm. They also had 40 mm Bofors and Oerlikon since the beginning. It was adopted by the Omaha class AA cruisers, the Cleveland, and Baltimore class cruisers, Alaska, Worcester and Des Moines. -The basic mark 9 gun unit weighted 30 tonnes, including a liner, tube, jacket, five hoops and its down-swing Welin breech block. When the treaty of Washington was ratified by the great naval powers in 1922, the nomenclature of types was modified and, in a sense, concepts consecrated. No doubt the “tin class cruisers” of the previous Washington designs, imposed by the tonnage limit forced the office of construction and repair within the Admiralty to review its copy by gaining weight where it was necessary for a better distribution and improve protection. USS Springfield (CGL-7) as modernized in the late 1960s. As expected, the Cleveland had a little more machine space and integral power supply that made portholes obsolete as source of waterways. The Kent class heavy cruiser HMAS Australia (D 84) of the Royal Australian Navy. With a limited beam and a lightly built hull, this caused a dangerous overweight and the Pensacola cruisers were quickly seen as excessive “rollers”. While faring well against Japanese cruisers in gunnery duels, US cruisers had experienced heavy losses from Japanese destroyers and their deadly long lance torpedoes. Displacement: 7050 t, 8950 T FL Dimensions: 172 x 16.2 x 7.25 m Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Westinghouse turbines, 2 BW boilers, 70,000 hp. Atlantic … More poorly isolated, they were icy and wet in winter, furnaces in the summer sious the tropics. As a kind of stroke of fate (or celestial vengeance for the Japanese), the cruiser on her return on July 29 was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. 12.7 mm AA, 4 aircraft Crew: 868, USS Wichita and USS Wasp at Scapa Flow by April 1942. However, many other US heavy cruisers saw as much action, and are more-often mentioned in history books, so they (Salt Lake City and San Francisco, for example) for "famous" better. See how the US Navy tried to create the ultimate cruiser-killer ship. This revised 1942 design was to give them a better arc of fire for their AAA by adopting a more compact superstructure, entirely reviewed and simplified, plus a single funnel. They were never popular with the crews and were replaced by 40 mm mounts as soon as they were available. The treaty limited large German warships to a displacement of 10,000 long tons (10,160 t), but did not restrict the caliber of main battery guns. Re: Best WW2 heavy cruiser = Prinz Eugen ? CA was redefined as Heavy Cruiser and combined with the CL series 1 July 1931. In 1945, USS Indianapolis was doubly (in)famous. With the Baltimore, we went to 12 of 127 mm, 48 of 40 mm, 24 of 20 mm in 1942, and much more in 1945. They were closely modelled on the Brooklyns but improved in all directions, range, AA armament, torpedo protection, electronics, etc. Built lightly, they relied on speed and were part of this generation of what were called tin-clad cruisers, relying on speed as their only protection. As the decision to pass to a new class was made in mid-1943, the next cruisers to be ordered were order to ensure that some of the new twin DP 6in/47 mounts were sent to However, he was overruled and later CA140 and 141, which were little advanced, were cancelled. The Des Moines-Class Heavy Cruiser, USS NEWPORT NEWS (CA-148) 8 in heavy cruiser USS Pensacola in 1943: lead ship of the first US Navy class built to 10000 ton Washington Treaty limits. The blockhouse was protected by 5.5-in also. Many cancellations followed however towards the end of the war and in total only twenty-one of these cruisers were completed during wartime. This ubiquitous secondary, dual purpose artillery was a wartime creation in its dual turret form. The Clevelands had been criticized for their lack of space. The USS Chicago, Albany and Columbus became CG conversions and Boston and Camberra CAG-1 and 2. Note the evolutions with the original design, Displacement: 9100 tons, 11,500 tons FL Dimensions: 178.5 x 19.9 x 5.9 m Propulsion: 2 shaft, 4 Parsons turbines, 4 WF boilers, 107,000 hp. If the British, French and Italians chose the double turret configuration, the Americans from the beginning adopted a triple turret configuratiosn already well initiated for their dreadnought. I’m gonna take this as a question asking for a specific cruiser that is the best of the Second World War and not one asking for a class of cruiser. Their anti-submarine protection was very advanced and their active service was very active and long. The term of ‘conventional cruiser‘ appeared in the late 1950s when the first missile cruisers were developed, notably in the US the “three T*” carrying ships, to describe a gun-armed vessel as primary armament. They were all scrapped in 1946, except the Murmansk, returned in 1947. The latter two had their machines rearranged, and new 5-in/38 in the brand new twin turret instead of the previous single unprotected mounts, while their superstructures were revised behind the aft funnel. For example, Portland and Indianapolis were upgraded in 1944 with 24 Bofors 40 mm, in six quad mounts. These much heavier ones could in parabolic trajectory cross the thickest armor of Japanese heavy cruisers in service. The last heavy cruiser, Wichita, suffered from stability problems, and it was intended that any new design would address this defect. The standard USN heavy cruisers (1942-46) The Baltimore class cruisers were not to be the last or largest conventional cruisers built, since they were followed after the war by the Worcester class and especially the Des Moines class, but they are certainly the best. Instead of the slower 6-in guns in barbettes, casemate and turrets, concerned about aviation and the need for specialized escort moved the design towards the brand new 5-inch/38 mounts in developments. 12.7 mm, 2×3 TLT 533 mm, 4 seaplanes. Crew: 750. The U.S. Navy heavy cruiser, Indianapolis, was commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on November 15, 1932. Their design was prepared in 1934–1936, while Germany was negotiating the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.The treaty, signed in 1935, permitted Germany to build 50,000 long tons (51,000 t) of heavy cruisers, enough for five 10,000-long ton ships. Fast and heavily armed, the Baltimore class was an evolution of the heavy cruiser designs from before World War II, but without the limitations imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty. This was the perfect deterrent force of its day after all. Some areas were protected against 6-in shells at certain angles, but 8-in shells could pass through them without problem. The last ship of the allies to be sunk during the Second World War was the centrepiece of a drama that inspired a movie, USS Indianapolis: Men of Courage in 2016. They were ultimately replaced witn new twin moonts in 1945. USS Indianapolis (CA35), colorized by Irootoko Jr. Meanwhile there was also the treaty ‘London II’ which imposed a vacancy on heavy cruisers. The ships of interest to us here, the Hipper class heavy cruisers, were part of the "Z" plan. Their characteristics made them relatively unhelpful vessels (like the British Dido class), as their engines proved to be disappointing, speed and manoeuvrability very inadequate. Engineers could already take some inspiration on foreign designs, but also have a look on the Chester class. US Heavy Cruisers provides a detailed, illustrated look at the wartime and post-war-built heavy cruiser classes of the US Navy of World War II. The USS Salt Lake City in 1939. It was the cruiser that enforced her national will in far off places, and patrolled the sea lanes of the world. The Baltimore class heavy cruisers were also placed in reserve in the 1940s-50s, reactivated and modernized, some kept as pure conventional ships, and others as CG/CAG missile cruisers conversions. Their serviced ended on the seventies. Indeed in surface action near Guadalcanal, USS Atlanta and Juneau were lost. The latter were of a new standard which lasted for ten more years until 1947, through the Cleveland and sub-classes Fargo and later the revolutionary Worcester. The first model was used by the Brooklyns and sub-class St Louis, Cleveland and Fargo. Designed after the Northampton, the two heavy cruisers Portland and Indianapolis were contemporary of the New Orleans class, but improved on many points and mainly that of protection. All Heavy cruiser classes. Some were dropped from the lists after 1960, and others survived until 1970-78. After the war, those who were not broken up in 1960 had been sold to the three “naval powers” of South America, Brazil (StLouis), Argentina (Phoenix, Boise), and Chile (Brooklyn), Nashville). For the modernized cruisers CGL-3-8, Springfield, Topeka, Providence, Oklahoma City, Little Rock, and Galveston were rebuilt on the same model as hybrid conventional/missile cruisers. This was the model fitted on the triple turrets of the USS Brooklyn and the eight other ships of the class. The British, the … The weaker version was the Mark 17, only capable of 5-8 rounds per minute and installed on the Erie class gunboats in single mounts. Protection was to ensure immunity against the 6in 105lb shell between 9300 and 28,000yds (90° target angle); against 1000lb SAP bombs dropped from any altitude; and against 12in 1000lb AP bombs dropped from below 7500ft. The displacement being limited to 6,000 tons was the result of the second treaty of London in 1936 for extra tonnage cruisers. USS Wichita spent most of her career in the Atlantic, escorting convoys with the Royal Navy. On the opening day of the Pacific War, December 7, 1941, as flagship of Scouting Force, US Fleet, she was making a simulated bombardment near Hawaii. The serie ended with the CL 147 USS Gary, last conventional cruiser laid down by the USN (cancelled in 1945). The Clevelands had been criticized for their lack of space. Largely in a late-war (1945) programme, which would have added CA150-153, was never approved by the President, leaving, at the end of the war, eight prospective members of the Des Moines class. The AAA artillery differed between ships, 28 x 40 mm and 21 x 20 mm for both Fargo subclasses in 1945. These were fleet escorts to provide cover to the new USN supercarriers, like the nuclear USS Enteprise and previous Kitty Hawk and Forrestal conventional carriers classes. Nothing of that scale was ever built afterwards, even when the USSR unveiled in 1979 its famous Kirov class “battlecruisers”. While the USS Helena, the last Brooklyn class cruiser was just being commissioned on 18 September 1939, replacement for the 20-years old Omaha class has been studied and plans settled that year. Wikimedia Commons has media related to World War II cruisers of the United States This category is for cruisers designed, built, or operated by the United States during World War II (1939–1945). The CL category was fairly diverse, since it contained the AA cruisers of the Atlanta class, up to the 14,000 tons (fully loaded) Cleveland and 18,000 tons for the Worcester class. Blandy recommended the Oerlikon Mark I, approved on 9 November 1940. USA (1942-46) USS Alaska, Guam, Hawaii Alaska class large cruisers (1944) USS Alaska, colorized by Hirootoko Jr. So when the need emerged of a true scout cruiser, better armed than destroyers, and with a better range, usable as destroyer leaders, work started on a new design in 1917. They were put in reserve since 1961. The Des Moines had 24 × 3 inch/50 caliber guns in 12 twin mounts, and the Worcester experimented in a big way: There were five dual 3-in/50 Mk33 port, including 3-in/50s installed in early 1949, five dual 3-in/50 Mk33 starboard, and one dual 3-in/50 Mk33 on the bow plus two single 3-in/50 Mk34 on blisters fantail. The first 8-in caliber developed for modern USN cruisers was a 55 caliber, developed into the Mk 9, Mk 12, Mk 14, Mk 15 and Mk 16 variants. He observed, too, that not even the new 5in/54 DP weapon an effective replacement would suffice against the guided missiles being introduced by the Germans and, presumably, the Japanese; the big 6in with a proximity fuze might well be not merely useful, but absolutely necessary. USA (1942-46) USS Baltimore, Boston, Camberra, Quincy, Pittsburgh, St. Paul, Columbus, Chicago, Bremerton, Fall River, Los Angeles, Macon Oregon City, Albany, Rochester The standard USN heavy cruisers (1942-46) The Baltimore class cruisers were not to They fired a 335 pounds (152 kg) A.P. Nine light cruiser hulls were used for CVL-light carriers. Author’s illustration of USS Wichita in 1945, Characteristics (in 1941): Displacement: 10,589 t. standard -13 015 t. Full Load Dimensions: 185,42 m long, 18,82 m wide, 7,24 m of draft Machines: 4 propellers, 4 Parsons turbines, 8 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 100,000 hp. Some were completed too late to participate in the war: the USS Manchester, Galveston, Fargo and Huntington, who did not have the opportunity to assert the relevance of their new design in operations. Top speed: 33 knots Armor: Belt 152, turrets 203, bridges 76, inner casemate 127-155 mm Armament: 9 guns of 203 (3 × 3), 12 of 127 (6 × 2), 48 guns of 40 (11 × 4, 2 × 2), 24 of 20 mm AA, 4 planes. As a result the ships displaced twice as much, top speed rose to 33 knots, while artillery configuration showed the transitional state of artillery at that time, with twin turrets and casemate guns. United States of America Unlike the difficulty selecting the best Japanese heavy cruiser, there is no question which American cruiser design was the best in WW II: the Baltimore class. The squared stern and rear aviation facilities were inherited from the Brooklyn design. So excessive in fact that from trials, captain voluntarily limited their evolutions and turns in particulars. Fast and heavily armed, ships like the Baltimore cruisers … and 32.5 knots max. The Omaha were the first American cruisers after a very long eclipse dating back to 1907 (the Chester). But that implied also a slower speed. On their time, the New Orleans were probably among the world’s most successful heavy cruisers, although protection (as shown by events) was still not optimal. They were the only losses of the war. Follow us on Twitter @uboatnet. Houston, Northampton and Chicago were sunk around Guadalcanal, USS Chester was badly damaged in never repaired, while the other two survived and left the active lists in 1949. They were launched in 1942-44 and completed in 1943-45. Specifications: Displacement: 17,255 long tons standard, 20,933 LT full load Dimensions: 218.39 x 23.32 x 6.7 m (716 ft 6 in x 76 ft 6 in x 22 ft) Propulsion: 4 shafts GE turbines, 4 boilers 120,000 shp Performances: 33 knots (61 km/h), Range 10,500 nmi at 15 knots Armament: 3×3 8 inch/55, 6×2 5 inch/38 12 x 2 3 inch/50, 12 × 20 mm Oerlikon Armour: Belt: 4-6 in (102-152 mm), Deck: 3.5 in (89 mm), Turrets: 2-8 in (51-203 mm), Barbettes: 6.3 in (160 mm), Conning tower: 6.5 in (165 mm). For costs reasons after the wall street crash, tonnage limitations, and simply age. The “Chicago Piano” was the standard quad AA machine gun mount in rare use on interwar USN Cruisers of the New Orleans class. / No heavy cruiser was damaged and all were able to carry the fight to the / Japanese (and Germans) once war plans were revised. Armor: Turrets 30-70, belt 120, CT 130 and casemate 80 mm, decks 60 mm. The USN had about ten cruiser classes, many sub-classes and two new one under construction during the war, for a total of about 60 cruisers. Widespread since the Omaha class, either in single, dual (rare) or quad mount. Because the British needed a lot of cruisers more than they needed the most powerful cruisers, they generally favored the smaller (6in gun) light cruiser to the larger (8in gun) heavy cruiser. Another of the Treaty cruisers, at standard load the St. Louis class was about 10,000 tons. In addition to this redistribution, lighter and still powerful machines were used, while torpedo tubes were eliminated from the design. Speed was just 24 kn (27.6 mph; 44.4 km/h), which was at the time better than most older cruisers. However in 1944 the 20 mm was found unable to stop Japanese Kamikaze planes and disappeared together with the 40 mm in the mid-1950s, rendered obsolete by the advent of the Jet age. April 14, 2020 Before that, the USN had experimented with fleet armoured cruisers, built alongside pre-dreadnoughts, down to small unprotected cruisers not much larger than gunboats (and reclassified as such in WW1). With the Alaska, the Admiralty intended to pass directly to the caliber 305 mm, that in force on the ships of line since 1890 and until 1916. It was also intended to make, like the German Germans, an invulnerable pirate of this “super cruiser”. None of these were sunk during the war. On the other hand, this passage to fifteen guns took place at the cost of a drastic reduction of armor compared to New Orleans. Both ships received already counterkeels in 1939 to improve their stability, but in 1942 their superstructures were massively lightened, and the massive tripod masts were removed. The Larger size of the Des Moines class is evident, especially her larger turrets. In addition, this was compounded by the adoption of tripod military masts, both tall and heavy, to suppoer the fire control posts, and a tall bridge blockhouse. The Vietnam War was probably the last time USN heavy cruisers saw combat; such as the USS St. Paul, USS Boston, etc. During this period, the USN tested and operated no less than six cruiser types: The scout cruiser (Omaha class), the AA cruiser (Atlanta class, 5-in DP guns), the light cruiser (up to the Worcester, arguably “heavy-light”, but with 6-in guns), the heavy cruiser (from Pensacola to Des Moines, 8-in guns), and even the “large cruiser” (Alaska class, 12-in guns). Among these units, two will be completed on a different design, the USS Fargo and USS Huntington. This allowed a 5.5 in (130 mm) armour thickness overall on the central cell and belt. Enthusiastic like the other Theodore of the beginning of the century by all that touched the navy, he wanted for the fleet a type of ship similar to that which made the pride of the Royal Navy, like Hood. The US had 37 cruisers (18 heavy and 19 light) at the start of the war to serve all ocean fronts. She survived the war and was broken up in December 1959. She was the leadship of the Aoba-class heavy cruisers. They were in service after probably the most outlandish USN Cruiser of that era, the USS Long Beach, which remained unique. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). They occupied some space, and therefor the superstructures of the Cleveland and Baltimore class were modelled AFTER the position of the 40 mm quad mounts were reserved, alternating with the dual 5-in turrets. See more ideas about heavy cruiser, cruisers, navy ships. To survive in front of heavier ships, the Atlanta class had to rely on their speed. Originally part of the German Navy, the Prinz Eugen was given to the U.S. after World War II as a victory prize.. In 1948, the office of ships and repair conducted a study for her conversion into a missile cruiser. This heavy cruiser, derived from the Brooklyn class, shared the hull with its square stern, and was authorized under the Treaty of London, for the fiscal year 1935. They were by tonnage heavy cruisers, with a displacement of nearly 10,000 tons, but “light cruisers” as armed with fifteen 6-in (152 mm) guns of a new semi-automatic type, twice as fast as 8-in guns. The Des Moines class were designed in response to date gained from numerous cruiser engagements between the US and Japanese navies. Initial design studies for a new heavy cruiser were started as early as September 1939, as an alternative to the abandoned 8,000-ton CL55 design.