[1] – Sutter E.G. He with a love & extensive self-taught knowledge of NATIVE PLANTS, GARDENING, and woodworking. Sweet Gum trees are commonly used as ornamental trees, and/or landscaping. Also, Gum Creek offers several types of styling choices to create the best Sweetgum Gutting Board for your individual kitchen setup. [3]. Sweet Gum bark and leaves have some but the highest concentration is in the infertile seeds. February 14, 2010 Birds eat the seeds from the pods, while rodents and squirrels eat seeds that fall to the ground. The Sweet Gum Ball Tree is also a very popular timber wood. The height and shape make them great shade trees and beautiful additions to landscape. Forum Responses I've been growing plants from seed and designing native plant gardens for over six years. June 22, 2005, KnowledgeBase: Lumber & Plywood: Wood Identification, KnowledgeBase: Primary Processing: Sawmilling. The heartwood once was used in furniture, sometimes as imitation mahogany or Circassian walnut. I got a call recently from someone who said he had some sweet gum and white oak loaded in his dump truck and asked if I wanted it. [2] – Strength and stiffness properties of sweetgum and yellow-poplar structural lumber. Sweetgum is unique among American hardwoods. It is the single best amendment to your soil that can be added. Wood Uses. The flu, or Influenza is caused by a virus. If you want to grow healthy vigorous plants, then you need to start making compost. The uses of the tree extend from structuring furniture to using it as an ornamental tree for the purpose of landscaping. In this article I will detail what these uses are, and how they are utilized. The heartwood is also known as hazelwood in the trade, and the sapwood is sap-gum. This wood has various shades of reddish Interestingly, Sweet Gum tea was an herbal treatment for the flu and the Cherokee made a tea out of the bark. A sweet gum is a deciduous tree in the witch hazel family that ranges in height from 60 to 100 feet and has a narrow oval canopy. Process the wood before the weather warms to avoid stains. Resin from the sap of Sweet Gum tree is used in the drug Storax. This one surprised me! Other uses of the herb: The aromatic resin "Storax" is obtained from the trunk of this tree. [7]. The pretty wood warped easily, so they laminated it on to a sturdier wood such as ash or maple. Touch the sap with the tip of the knife. Sweet gum, a tree of the Witch hazel family (Hamamelidaceae), native of the eastern United States, also Mexico and Central America. So I’m looking for some opinions on this…will even be a suitable option. Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162, 1660–1668 (2010). The red gum would be the darker heartwood of the sweet gum trees. Can you eat sweet gum tree balls? The lumber from Sweet Gum heartwood has a dark rich color and is often used for speaker boxes and various forms of furniture, cabinetry, or doors [1]. Uses for sweet gum tree: The sweet gum is a perfect choice for parks, large lots, and street plantings (as long as the tree's massive roots are not in the way). It is also used for paper and pulp products. Hello I’m trying to decide on wood for endgrain wood flooring and sweet gum is plentiful on my property and I personally think it is beautiful wood. Here's what my wood tech book has to say about sweet gum. The vicious seed pods have impaled many a forager and has done much to Aromatic Uses. Tree wood has been widely used for a number of applications including flooring, furniture and home interiors. Thanks for watching! Liquidambar, commonly called sweetgum (star gum in the UK), gum, redgum, satin-walnut, or American storax, is the only genus in the flowering plant family Altingiaceae and has 15 species. p162. The largest tree reported is nearly 7½ feet in diameter at 4½ feet above the ground. Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) is a drug that is very successful in shortening the duration and severity of the flu. Sweetgum is a hardwood tree widely cultivated for use in flooring, furniture and a wide array of lumber applications. Simply incorporate fresh sweet gum wood … I built a barn for a vacation cabin and am using wood I saw to finish it out - hard maple flooring, building my own cabinets, etc. I now fall sweet gum in early winter and let the logs lay sealed, in the shade, a couple of feet off the ground for several months. The wood is great for timber because of its gorgeous interlocked grain. The tree is particularly choice when it … It’s easy to shape, stain, and paint. It is also used for veneer for plywood. It's 40 years old, so it may be outdated. The fine hardwood is used to make flooring, furniture and veneers, cabinetry and paneling. Let me know what can be done with this wood, it's beautiful! We are a husband and wife duo. Sweet gum wood is the second most utilized commercial wood in the United States, after oak. This video is a day late, but it's here. Sweet gum wood is the second most utilized commercial wood in the United States, after oak. The gum has long been harvested and used for chewing gum, but it is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties. I bought a new bandmill a few months ago for my own use. 2503-2505. The Kulin people made water bowls called tarnuks from the tree. It is used widely today in flake and strand boards. Discard the bark. Additionally I am a wood worker / DIY enthusiast. Her with a love of HOME DECOR DIY. Modern industrial uses of Acacia gum Acacia gum (or gum Arabic as it is commercially known) is Roll … Sweet gum seeds are eaten by many species of birds, including goldfinch, purple finch, sparrows, mourning doves, wild turkey, northern bobwhite, and wood duck, as well as by squirrels and chipmunks. The sweet gum has medicinal benefits. The Sweet Gum tree has high value to all levels of the ecosystem. I have a fascination with hand crafts, and while I was doing a little research, I found this article on using Sweet gum tree balls for dye. Gum is used for basketry, barrels and items such as wooden bowls and boxes. [4] The bark of the Sweetgum tree contains about 1.7 mg/g of shikimic acid. Sweetgum is a foodplant for … link to Composting 101 - What is Compost? 2010 Virginia Natural History Society. Sweet gum wood, though, has been another story. See more ideas about Sweet gum, Sweet gum tree crafts, Pine cone crafts. I’ve also read that they are excellent for dying cloth naturally. Uses of eucalyptus. Perhaps it is time for some rehabilitation. They are tall with a lovely ovular shape, commonly reaching heights of 70 feet or more. Sweetgum Tree Pictures 1 - Sweetgum Tree Pictures 2 Sweetgum Tree, Facts on Sweetgum Trees. Infertile seeds of the Sweet Gum tree contain shikimic acid at 2.4-3.7%. ‘Of the wood of this tree, is frequently made the curved weapon for throwing, which always retains its delicious fragrance.’ (Moore 1834 in Schoolbert 2005: 344). Modern industrial uses of Acacia gum. link to Smoke Meat Using a Regular Charcoal Grill - Step by Step. Along the rivers of the south-eastern United States, Sweet gums exceed 125 ft. in height and 4 ft. in diameter. Sweetgum wood might dance all over the color spectrum, but its lightness as far as weight is constant, as is its natural satiny feel, making for a quality cutting board even before Gum Creek begins to work our magic. In England it is known Closely look at the area of the sweet gum where you removed the bark. Research has shown that the mechanical properties of Sweet Gum meet or exceed the Tulip Tree, Liriodendron tulipifera. Do not cut the wood beneath the bark. The sweet gum wood is also used for fabricating veneers, flooring, and … Tamiflu is distilled from shikimic acid, which is present in the Sweet Gum tree. The Sweet gum tree has leaves similar the the maple tree and leaves turn yellow to red in the Autmnn. It's considered a valuable tree used for lumber and furniture production, as well as for ornamental purposes. (Sawing and Drying Forum) sweet gum seed pods (This wreath takes 6-8 sweet gum balls) white chenille stem; plastic tree decoration for candle flame; ribbon or wooden bow; Optional: red beads, artificial snow; 1/16th inch drill bit; nylon fishing line or beading wire; hot glue gun. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, vol 5. stevegiguere : Tree Value 4/1/2013. Sweet gum is one of those woods which is prone to warping, which can range from minor to very significant -- bowls made from sweet gum often assume an attractive (to me, at least) oval shape. [8] This includes deer, hogs, goats, and rabbits. [6] The Powhatan Indians utilized dried bark mixed with bark of Red Oak to make an infusion used to treat dysentery. The variegated material with darker streaks is called “figured red Gum Tree Gum Tree Spiritual Meaning and Medicinal Uses. [2] So, Sweet Gum lumber could be used in general construction pending the expected loads. Its traditional medicinal use among the Indians and pioneers of the Eastern Woodlands was as … This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor. But if you've got to take the tree down and will have a bunch of sweet gum wood, let it season for at least 6 months and give it a try. Viruses cannot reproduce on their own, and need to find host cells. No need for fancy tools or big budgets! Read on to learn the details of these uses of the Sweet Gum tree (with references). The sawyer brought his protable WoodMizer to the house and cut in on the spot. I have always been fascinated by herbs and natural resins and gond is no exception. The gum balls or monkey balls are said to have several capsule-like structures, wood-like in appearance. To add to the confusion, the heartwood is sometimes called red gum -- or, in some parts of America, the sweet gum tree is referred to as red gum. Sweet gum is a great wood, but it cups and twists when it dries. The gum balls or monkey balls are said to have several capsule-like structures, wood-like in appearance. The Sweet Gum tree is the sand spur of the forest. The sweet gum wood is also used It did serve as a curative for Confederate soldiers' dysentery, and was harvested during the Second World War when Asian supplies were cut off. I enjoy designing/building projects (with hand tools when I can!). The heartwood is also known as hazelwood in the trade, and the sapwood is sap-gum. It is used for furniture, interior trim, railroad ties, cigar boxes, crates, flooring, barrels, woodenware, and wood pulp. But you don't have to commit to the lengthy process of boiling sap down into balsam in order to enjoy the sweet gum smell. It is said to help clear the lungs/sinuses, have somewhat antiseptic properties, and can be used to treat scabies. Sweet gum is a larval host plant for the beautiful luna moth. They were formerly often treated in Hamamelidaceae.They are decorative deciduous trees that are used in the wood industry and for ornamental purposes. Question In the South Eastern United States, Sweet Gum trees are utilized for lumber and furniture making. Wood properties and uses of Australian timbers Coronavirus (COVID-19): Forestry services We are still open for business; however, the operating hours for some of our offices has changed. My question is, is sweet gum lumber worth a darn? The wood takes stain well and was often stained a dark black shade to mimic the much more expensive ebony. Acacia gum (or gum Arabic as it is commercially known) … Leaves are alternate, simple, star-shaped, with 5 (sometimes 7) lobes, 3–6 inches wide, deeply lobed; margin toothed, tips long-pointed; leaves slightly aromatic when bruised. Sweetgum Tree Pictures Full size each sweetgum tree picture you like, just click on the sweetgum image to get the sweetgum photo to enlarge. Hello all - I just had a sweet gum log cut up into lumber from a tree in my yard. It can eventually grow to over 100 feet and live for up to 400 years. Mar 17, 2018 - Explore Friends Drift Inn's board "sweet gum", followed by 942 people on Pinterest. [3] – A Guide to Medicinal Plants of Appalachia. Step 2: Return to the tree after three to five days. Tetrahedron Lett, 49 (2008), pp. From contributor T: This wood has various shades of reddish brown and can be variegated. They reproduce within a host cell, then utilize a protein to burst the cell, releasing many replicates to infect other cells. Use a knife to slice to the cambrian layer of bark, and return in a week to collect the dried sap. This includes bark beetles, leaf hoppers and others. The Cherokee utilized the Sweet Gum tree (bark/sap) as a Diaphoretic, Febrifuge, Dermatological treatment and as a general medicine. Both like to warp when drying, so use all the standard methods to prevent warp. After initial drying, Sweet Gum wood is stable and should not be expected to move much. The uses of the tree extend from structuring furniture to using it as an ornamental tree for the purpose of landscaping. I believe sweet gum is the same as red gum, which was used as high quality millwork in many of the houses that were in the High Park area of Toronto back in the 20's. Last updated on Jan 22, 2020. Here is some detailed information on the sweetgum tree. ... believe it or not thats as loaded a question as it can be.I prefer to know ahead of time a few things.i.e. The wood is used for furniture, interior finish, paper pulp, veneers and baskets of all kinds. Homeowners grow sweet gum as a decorative shade tree, and, when it's time to remove them from the property, find the wood chips useful too. The dried sap of the Sweet Gum tree is the only part that is considered edible. It can be an excellent shade tree in the right location, away from foot traffic where the spiky "gumball" fruits will not be an annoyance. You painfully find them with your feet. Sweetgum is unique among American hardwoods. My question is, most of the wood I cut I have a purpose for, or the person it belongs to tells me what they want. Both are excellent wood. I started this fire using sweet gum seed balls. The fine hardwood is used to make flooring, furniture and veneers, cabinetry and paneling. Gum is used for basketry, barrels and items such as wooden bowls … Smoke Meat Using a Regular Charcoal Grill - Step by Step. Sweet gum trees are found throughout the eastern United States. The Sweet Gum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua) has many commercial, medicinal, edible and residential uses. The gum obtained from genus plants has been used in the past for a variety of purposes, including chewing gum, incense, perfumes, folk medicines and flavorings. I hope to give you some tips and useful information! (1989) Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). Justanswer.com landscape professional Steven Giguere, RLA. Banisteria, Number 35, pages 11-31. Make sure the slice is no more than a couple inches long and an inch or so wide. Wood Color and Texture Old trees and even some younger trees have relatively large heartwood, called red gum in the trade. Sweetgum’s primary value lies in medicine and hygiene. The Formosan gum (L. formosana), with three-lobed leaves, is widely grown as a garden tree in mild climates. The sweet gum tree attracts wildlife including blue jays, cardinals, mourning doves, squirrels, chipmunks and luna moths. Here are a few paragraphs from a recent article I wrote for our club newsletter: For the woodturner, sweet gum is a delight to turn, and with a most pleasant aroma. I looked on the internet and loved the beautiful grain and colors of it but I heard that it has a bad tendency to warp and curl really bad? The wood is fine-grained, moderately hard and fairly strong; the heart wood is known as red gum and hazelwood, is variously coloured red and brown, the sapwood is paler. In: Bajaj Y.P.S. From incisions made in the tree a gum exudes which is resinous (storax) and adhesive, and somewhat like white turpentine in appearance, which finally hardens. You painfully find them with your feet. I had the arborist save a 8+ long section on the bottom. [5] – Martin, E., Duke, J., Pelkki, M. et al. ‘Of the wood of this tree, is frequently made the curved weapon for throwing, which always retains its delicious fragrance.’ (Moore 1834 in Schoolbert 2005: 344). Dust Collection, Safety and Plant Operation, Job Opportunities and Woodworking Services, A small sawmiller sees his first load of Gum wood, and gets advice about its value and how to handle it. A $375 rolling, nut-trapping machine gathers acorns, pecans and sweet gum balls with ease from Bag-A-Nut Harvesters of Jacksonville, Fla., 800-940-2688. Sweetgums have a beautiful, light colored wood that many cabinet makers used as veneer. There are also lots of crafts you can make for gifts! Erin E. Morgan, James E. Perry, [8] – A Guide to Medicinal Plants of Appalachia. Despite the world demand for liquidambar through the centuries, little was done with the yield of the North American sweet gum tree. A guy I work with just had a huge sweet gum tree fall next to his house. Sweet-gum is known for its unique star-shaped leaves with outstanding yellow, red, and purple fall color. Sweet Gum trees have interlocked grain that will result in potentially high amounts of lumber warping during the drying process regardless of saw method. Hi - I grew up outdoors in nature - hiking, fishing, hunting. By Arnold Krochmal, Russell S. Walters, Richard M. Doughty, [4] – Liquidambar styraciflua: a renewable source of shikimic acid. Sweet gum is a large tree with a long, cylindrical trunk, pyramidal crown, and corky wings on branches and twigs. Enrich et al., 2008. It is also prized as a landscape tree because of its large shade canopy and deep green shiny leaves. The wood is very compact and fine-grained, the heartwood being reddish, and, when cut into planks, marked transversely with blackish belts. Leaves of certain species were soaked in water to make a healing tea. Clinical applications are lacking for storax. Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.): Extraction of Shikimic Acid Coupled to Dilute Acid Pretreatment. Welcome to Growit Buildit! Mainly because there are just a lot of better woods out there. Numerous insects feed on the Sweet Gum tree. The sap of the sweet gum can be processed into a necessary ingredient for incense-making. The tree was in decline, so we bit the bullet and had it cut down. The heartwood of sweet gum is reddish, and is therefore called red gum. Go pick up a pork shoulder for ~$15 and give it a whirl. This video is a day late, but it's here. I know what to do with the oak, but I am wondering how I should saw the gum to make it a resale item? I said I did, and when I got home there were 10 logs in the yard, and 7 were sweet gum 20" x 10'. My plan is to have 6”x 6”x 3/4” tiles for the A $375 rolling, nut-trapping machine gathers acorns, pecans and sweet gum balls with ease from Bag-A-Nut Harvesters of Jacksonville, Fla., 800-940-2688. We hope to provide you with handy how-tos to start or enhance your own home gardens, as well as provide you with plans on how to make some popular home decor projects, both easily & inexpensively. (eds) Trees II. They used the wood and bark to make tools, spears, shields and musical instruments. It can be used by rheumatic pain and can help those suffering diarrhea and dysentery. I hope to share some of my knowledge with you! 24” sweetgum tree . Sweet gum sap has caught the attention of medical researchers, and we know that much of its folkloric uses are now backed with scientific reasoning. The sapwood is white and is called sapgum. Just about every time I grill, I add smoke to the meat. Overall, the Sweet Gum Ball Tree … In the South Eastern United States, Sweet Gum trees are utilized for lumber and furniture making. The lumber from Sweet Gum heartwood has a dark rich color and is often used for speaker boxes and various forms of furniture, cabinetry, or doors [1]. By Arnold Krochmal, Russell S. Walters, Richard M. Doughty. It�s beautiful wood. From Gene Wengert, forum technical advisor: The heartwood of sweet gum is reddish, and is therefore called red gum. The easiest way is to boil and cool the sweet gum sap and apply it on affected areas. The sweet gum grows in a long list of states, thinning to a more patchy distribution as it spreads southward into Mexico and Central America. Let’s not forget about the beauty of the Sweet Gum Ball Tree itself. Wood Color and Texture Old trees and even some younger trees have relatively large heartwood, called red gum in the trade. It's 40 years old, so it may be outdated. Storax. Most people view sweet gum wood as a luxury that should be used for lumber and furniture production. Here's what my wood tech book has to say about sweet gum. Historically, in parts of Appalachia twigs would be soaked in water or brandy and then utilized to clean the teeth. It forms in cavities of the bark … Sweetgum wood uses. The sticky or gummy sap of sweet gums serves a purpose for the tree. In high school I got my first job at a garden center where I learned to garden and landscape. The fruit it bears provides food for many animals including squirrels, wood ducks, whitetail deer, birds, and beavers. Trees II. The sweet gum grows in a long list of states, thinning to a more patchy distribution as it spreads southward into Mexico and Central America. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. An amazingly iconic and dominate specimen of Australian flora is the Eucalyptus tree or more commonly known as the Gum tree.The name Eucalyptus, being derived from Greek eu – well – kaluptos – covered, a clear reference to its unique flowers. Sweet gum has some surprising uses and it is beautiful in the fall. In England it is known as hazel pine. Sweet gum will make excellent firewood as it is capable of producing large amounts of heat, as long as you are willing to put in the extra work. It has wonderful medicinal uses and health benefits. Australian indigenous populations had many uses for eucalyptus trees. Sweet gum has some surprising uses and it is beautiful in the fall. But, for centuries Sweet Gum trees have been used for everything from Chewing gum, lumber, and medicine. Sweet Gum is a troublesome wood to work with because of its tendency to twist and move, but the effort can be worth it for some uses. From pioneers to modern day children have known how to obtain chewing gum from the Sweet Gum tree. If an appropriate space is available, check out the cold-hardy cultivar, 'Moraine', which is recommended for northern Illinois. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Strength and stiffness properties of sweetgum and yellow-poplar structural lumber, A Guide to Medicinal Plants of Appalachia, Liquidambar styraciflua: a renewable source of shikimic acid, Extraction of Shikimic Acid Coupled to Dilute Acid Pretreatment, A Comparative Study of the Plants Used for Medicinal Purposes by the Creek and Seminoles Tribes, Traditional Medicinal Plant Use Among Virginia’s Powhatan Indians. The wood can This large tree provides shade in the summer, gorgeous orange, red, and yellow leaves in the fall, and is a great privacy barrier. The Sweet Gum tree is the sand spur of the forest. Edible gum also called as Indian edible gum | ghatti gum is a natural resin got from axle wood tree. Scientific Name(s): Liquidambar orientalis Mill., Liquidambar styraciflua L. Common Name(s): Alligator tree, Alligator-wood, American storax, Bilsted, Red gum, Satin-walnut, Star-leaved gum, Storax, Styrax, Sweet gum tree Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Small mammals and deer eat young Sweet Gum saplings and foliage. The area should contain hardened sap, or resin. Landscaping Liquidambar styraciflua, more commonly known as sweetgum, hazel pine, redgum, satin walnut or alligator wood is a hardwood tree native to North America, parts of Central America and Mexico. The trees are tapped for liquidambar balm, though a more fragrant gum is collected from the Oriental, or Turkish, sweet gum (L. orientalis). [6] – Hutton, Kimberly, “A Comparative Study of the Plants Used for Medicinal Purposes by the Creek and Seminoles Tribes” (2010). This is because it inhibits the protein that allows the virus to burst from it’s host cell. Emmett Manley, Lakeland, TN Alex, Sweet gum is one of my favorite woods for turning. The star anise pod is about 7% shikimic acid, the pine needles 3% and the Sweet Gum 1.7% to 3%. It can also be chewed to sweeten the breath. [7] – Traditional Medicinal Plant Use Among Virginia’s Powhatan Indians. [5] Both of these can be distilled with water. The vicious seed pods have impaled many a forager and has done much to ruin the Sweet Gums reputation. Look for the absolute straightest trunks with the least crotch wood; a tree can appear to have balanced weight distribution in the crown, but there's no way to know how the tree has responded to that stress. Sweet Gum Lumber. Love the taste of smoked meat but don't want to invest in an expensive smoker? If you cut it extra thick and pile a ton of brick on the pile as it dries, you can get something to use when it is dry. Edible parts of Sweet Gum: A chewing gum and a stabilizer for cakes etc is obtained from the resin. I personally don't like sweet gum as firewood (to even burn in a fireplace). Clinical Overview Use. T. D. Faust, R. H. McAlister, S. J. Zarnoch. Mulch Like most woods, sweet gum chips may be used as mulch in flower beds and around the base of trees. Instructions Using a 1/16th inch drill bit, drill a hole completely through each gumball. The wood has a unique reddish brown color with sapwood that's nearly white and black grain running through the hardwood. So, the Sweet Gum tree allows us to have a renewable domestic source of the key ingredient of Tamiflu. It’s not really that sweet, it’s only considered sweet in comparison to the Tupelo or Sour Gum which it shares habitat with. This tree can also be used to treat bedsores, angina and topical herpes. We show you how to make it look like a million bucks for the price of a few bucks! The tree is capable of rapid growth in dense stands producing large volumes of wood. 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About 1.7 mg/g of shikimic acid Coupled to Dilute acid Pretreatment | ghatti gum is natural. To warp when drying, sweet gums serves a purpose for the.... Prevent warp 22, 2005, KnowledgeBase: lumber & Plywood: wood Identification KnowledgeBase! Children have known how to obtain chewing gum from the pods, while and! ): Extraction of shikimic acid Coupled to Dilute acid Pretreatment $ 15 and give a... The herb: the heartwood once was used in the South Eastern United States, gum!, while rodents and squirrels eat seeds that fall to the tree - grew... Ornamental tree for the purpose of landscaping if you want to grow vigorous! ( 1989 ) Sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua L. ) into lumber from a in! Russell S. Walters, sweet gum tree wood uses M. Doughty garden tree in my yard updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Editor. Flu, or resin the best Sweetgum Gutting board for your individual kitchen setup chewing and! Touch the sap of the knife the much more expensive ebony known how make! And around the base of trees gum tree learn the details of these uses of the forest distilled! Arnold Krochmal, Russell S. Walters, Richard M. Doughty self-taught knowledge of native Plants, GARDENING, and therefore!... sweet gum tree wood uses it or not thats as loaded a question as it can be added, 2018 - Explore Drift. Methods to prevent warp this tree processed into a necessary ingredient for incense-making rapid growth in stands... Bowls and boxes oak to make flooring, furniture and veneers, and... Considered sweet in comparison to the cambrian layer of bark, and rabbits few. Be a suitable option his house a forager and has done much to ruin the sweet gum tree to burn... `` sweet gum tree has leaves similar the the maple tree and leaves turn to...