For a contemporary account of his reign see François Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire, A.D. 1656-1668, translated by A. Constable and edited by V. A. Smith (1914). Emperor Shah Jahan is best remembered as a patron of Mughal architecture and is known for the grand legacy of architectural structures constructed during his reign. He had his own brothers and nephews executed so that he could rule without having to face any competition. He got the first opportunity to display his military prowess during the Mughal campaign against the Rajput state of Mewar, in 1614. Shah Jahan adapted the river-front garden for the layout of Taj Mahal. Delicacy , beauty, detailing are the main features of architecture of his time. Shah Jahan (1592-1666) was the fifth Mogul emperor of India. As the third son born to Emperor Jahangir, initially it seemed unlikely that he would be the chosen heir to succeed his father. Shah Jahan was the ruler of the Mughal empire, his name translating literally from the Persian as 'King of the World'. Shah Jahan and his sons successfully continued their military campaigns and captured the city of Kandahar in 1638 from the Safavids. For his utmost gallantry and victories over the land of Mewar, Deccan and Kangra, he was rewarded with the title of Shah Jahan Bahadur by his father. The single most important architectural change was the use of marble instead of sandstone. The period of his reign is widely considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture. His reign is, in fact, called the Golden Age of the Mughal Architecture. Shah Jahan is best known for constructing the Taj Mahal which he built in the memory of his wife the empress Mumtaz Mahal who died during childbirth. The white-splendored tomb was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his favourite wife, Arjumand Banu Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal (“Chosen of the Palace”). After ruthlessly suppressing his rivals, he went on to promote Mughal artistic and architectural achievements to the zenith of their creativity. He outstripped his predecessors as a builder. Shah Jahan’s buildings are unmatched in exquisite beauty of form. During his reign he was able to expand the empire considerably. Article Shared By. Built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, it is one of the most grandiose gestures of love to ever be materialized on the face of earth. This led to retaliation of the Persians, led by Abbas II of Persia who reclaimed the territory after a few years. Architecture Under Shah Jahan The vision of Shah Jahan (1628—1658) introduced a delicate elegance and detail to Mughal architecture, illustrated in the Jama Masjid in Delhi, the Moti Masjid situated within the Agra Fort, and the Sheesh Mahal in the Lahore Fort, which makes spectacular use of pietra dura and complex mirror work. The Taj Mahal was built by the famous Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaj Mahal. Shah Jahān period architecture, Indian building style that flourished under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (reigned 1628–58), its crowning achievement being the magnificent mausoleum at Agra, the Taj Mahal. The early name of Shah… Read more He was born on 5th of January 1592 at Lahore. The Maker of the Taj ... Share this: Shah Jahan Biography. The best biography of Shah Jahan is Banarsi Prasad Saksena, History of Shahjahan of Dihli (1932). Delicacy , beauty, detailing are the main features of architecture of his time. [15], Akbar was the first to initiate and utilize metal cylinder rockets known as bans particularly against War elephants, during the Battle of Sanbal. The Taj Mahal is the masterpiece of his reign…, …the reign of the emperor Shah Jahān (1628–58), its crowning achievement being the magnificent Taj Mahal. As a young child, he was primarily raised by Akbar’s first wife, the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, and was returned to his biological mother only when he was 13 years old. Updates? Shah Jahan was grief stricken following her death. Shah Jahan had three wives. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. In fact, the contemporary world is more familiar about Shah Jahan due to this architecture. However, with time he became very ambitious for the throne and started eliminating all the brothers and nephews who he considered to be threats. Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. She had been the mother of 14 of his 16 children. His great grandfather Akbar had built the beautiful city at Fatehpur Sikri and the impressive gate-way named Buland Darwaza. As observed by the noted art critic Percy Brown, “As it was the proud statement of Augustus that he found Rome built of bricks and left it of marble, similarly Shah Jahan had found the Mughal cities of stones, he left them of marble”. It is said to be the most beautiful monument built by the Mughal rulers and represents the zenith of the Mughal architecture. At Delhi, Shah Jahān built a huge fortress-palace complex called the Red Fort as well as another Jāmiʿ Masjid, which is among the finest mosques in India. The transition from the robustness of Akbar’s buildings to a more sensuous architecture of the later period … The use of the double dome, a recessed archway inside a…. Though Shah Jahan was an able administrator and commander, he is best known for the construction of the Taj Mahal, which he built in the memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Jahangir’s son Prince Khurram ascended the throne in 1628 as Emperor Shah Jahan. The last of the great Mughal architects was Aurangzeb, who built the Badshahi Mosque. He is known as Shah Jahân, sometimes spelled Shah Jehan, but his offi… His reign is characterized by monumental architectural achievements as much as anything else. Royalty . The popular structure was nestled in Agra India. This delighted Jahangir who granted him the title of Shah Jahan and allowed him a special throne in his Durbar. Shah Jahan is the 5th Mughal emperor, coming after Bâbur, Humâyûn, Akbar, and Jahângîr, his father.His mother was Princess Nûr Jahân, a woman who had taken power over her husband during the last years of his reign, at a time when he had fallen into the grip of drugs. The period of his reign is considered as the golden age of Mughal art and architecture. The period of his reign was considered the golden age of Mughal architecture. Even though Shah Jahan was unable to recapture it from the Persians, he was able to expand the Mughal Empire to the west beyond the Khyber Pass to Ghazna and Kandahar. Article Shared By. Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan’s buildings have no parallel in symmetry of design. He was born as Prince Khurram on 5th January 1592, to Emperor Jahangir and his second wife, Jagat Gosini (a Rajput Princess). He received an upbringing typical for a Mughal prince, and was given excellent martial training and was exposed to a wide variety of cultural arts, such as poetry and music. Even after the death of Akbar, he remained distant from the court politics when his father and brothers were engaged in conflicts over the throne. After his beloved wife's death, Shah Jahan shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi. He developed this architectural form as a means to control the nobles’ access to the river. Contents Introduction 3 Chapter 1 7 Taj Mahal: Shah Jahan’s symbolism of his eternal love 7 1.1 Who Built It? At his first capital, Agra, he undertook the building of two great mosques, the Motī Masjid (Pearl Mosque) and the Jāmiʿ Masjid (Great Mosque), as well as the superb mausoleum known as the Taj Mahal. https://www.kisspng.com/png-taj-mahal-shah-jahan-mughal-empire-mughal-emperor-1117979/, http://ww.itimes.com/poll/shah-jahan-547048b3bae41/result, https://kitchensofhistory.wordpress.com/tag/jahanara/, http://www.historydiscussion.net/biography/biography-of-shah-jahan-life-accession-and-monuments/3058, https://www.wonders-of-the-world.net/Taj-Mahal/Shah-Jahan.php. Emperor Akbar died in 1605 and Jahangir succeeded to the throne. He was born on 5th January 1592 in Lahore. It took 20 years to build the Taj Mahal, and it was built in Agra, India, on the southern bank of the Yamuna River. Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned the Taj Mahal in 1632 as a mausoleum for his beloved wife. His second wife, Mumtaz Mahal, whom he had married in 1612, died in 1631. Shah Jahan had a special liking for white marble. In 1622, with relations at their zenith, Shah Jahan went to war against his father. Facts. It is the centerpiece of 42 acres that contains a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. The magnificence of Shah Jahan’s court was the wonder of European travellers. Prince Khurram married Arjumand Banu Begum in May 1612. It was the grandest architectural accomplishment during his reign. He also was fond of Persian arts and culture. The exquisite building, constructed from white marble underlaid with brick, took 20 years to complete. Shah Jahan’s eldest daughter, Jahanara Begum, voluntarily accompanied her father and took care of him in his old age. Biography The early years. It was to her memory that the Taj Mahal was built. He was the son of Muhgal Emperor Jahangir and Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani. He developed this architectural form as a means to control the nobles’ access to the river. He built the great Red Fort at Delhi (1639–48), with its dazzling hall of public audience, the flat roof of which rests on rows of columns and pointed, or cusped, arches, and the Jāmiʿ Masjid (1650–56), which is…, …an almost insatiable passion for building. Khurram did not take interest in the political conflicts between his father and brother, focusing instead on his education and training. 3. The third son of Emperor Jahangir, Shah Jahan was born at Lahore on Jan. 5, 1592, and was given the name of Khurram. During his reign the Indo-Persian architecture reached its climax. Shah Jahan had a natural love for magnificence, which was reflected in the buildings that he constructed. 'King of the World'), was the fifth Mughal emperor, and reigned from 1628 to 1658. Shah Jahan ruled India during the golden age of Mughal art an architecture. In 1611, his father married Nur Jehan, the widowed daughter of a Persian immigrant and the aunt of Arjumand Banu Begum. One the greatest work of miniature painting is the “Padshahnama,” a 10-inch-wide book with 478 pages of text handwritten on gold flecked paper. Biography of Shah Jahan (Mughal Emperor) Introduction: Shah Jahan (also Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan) was the fifth Mughal Emperor in India. The young prince commanded an army numbering around 200,000 and led the attack, eventually forcing the rival king Maharana Amar Singh II to surrender to the Mughals. It was Shah Jahan (1628–58) who perfected Mughal architecture and erected at Agra its most noble and famous building, the tomb of his favorite wife, which is known as the Taj Mahal. MUGHAL ACHIEVEMENTS They constructed reservoirs, bridges, gardens, masjids, lodgings all over India. Often referred to simply as Begum Sahib (Princess of Princesses), she was the elder sister of the crown prince, Dara Shikoh, and Emperor Aurangzeb. Mughal art and architecture: Achievements under Akbar. Shah Jahan's period is known as the Golden Age of Architecture. Shah Jahan’s buildings have beautiful balance among different parts. The early name of Shah… Read more During his reign the Mughal Empire was a rich center of arts, crafts and architecture. Taj Mahal also means Crown Palace. Shah Jahan’s grave was added into it later on. In architecture the first great Mughal monument was the mausoleum to Humayun, erected during the reign of Akbar (1556–1605). Mumtaz bore him 14 children. Many great monuments inspired by persian architecture were built by the Muslim emperors. Shah Jahān’s reign was also a period of great literary activity, and the arts of painting and calligraphy were not neglected. The emperor’s love for architecture is legendary; some of the nation’s most well-known architectural and artistic accomplishments were undertaken during his reign. Original Name: Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim Birth: 31 August 1569 Place of Birth: Fatehpur Sikri, Mughal Empire Coronation: 24 November 1605 Reign: 3 November 1605 – 28 October 1627 Death: 28 October 1627 Place of Death: Rajauri, Kashmir, Mughal Empire Father: Akbar the Great Mother: Mariam-uz-Zamani Consort: Nur Jahan Predecessor: Akbar Successor: Shahryar Mirza, Shah Jahan Achievements Emperor Shah Jahan is best remembered as a patron of Mughal architecture and is known for the grand legacy of architectural structures constructed during his reign. During his reign, from 1628 to 1658, the Mogul Empire reached its zenith in prosperity and luxury. The Taj Mahal till date remains one of the most visited tourist attractions in India. This is a cozy mausoleum housing the grave of the Queen on the lower chamber. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This period is marked by a fresh emergence in India of Persian features that had been seen earlier in the tomb of Humāyūn. During his period architecture reached its highest water mark in India. Symmetry and balance between the parts of a building were always stressed, as was delicate ornamental detail. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Eventually he became closer to his father and Jahangir granted him the jagir of Hissar-Feroza, which had traditionally been the fief of the heir apparent, in 1607. Shah Jahan also had children from his other wives. Shah Jahan's period is known as the Golden Age of Architecture. Under Shah Jahan the Mughal Empire attained its highest union of strength with agnificence. The emperor’s love for architecture is legendary; some of the nation’s most well-known architectural and artistic accomplishments were undertaken during his reign. Jahangir's army defeated Shah Jahan's after a four-year fight; the prince surrendered unconditionally. The tomb, which was built in the 1560s, was designed by a Persian architect Mirak Mirza Ghiyas. He laid emphasis on uniformity and symmetry. She was the eldest child of Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. He was the fifth ruler of the Mughal dynasty. Corrections? In inscribing texts from the Koran round the tall doorways, the artists have shown themselves such masters of perspective that the letters 30 feet or more above the line of th… His grandfather Ibrahim Khan Suri was a land lord (Jagirdar) in Narnaul area and his father Mian Hassan Khan Suri, was a horse breeder and a prominent figure in the government of Bahlul Khan Lodi. The fort’s best preserved examples of Mughal architecture can be found overlooking the Yamuna River and the distant domes of the Taj Mahal, and these glorious views are made all the more significant when you discover that Shah Jahan was imprisoned within Agra Fort by … He also grew closer to his father and was named the emperor upon Jahangir’s death. ShahJahan was given the name of Mumtaz Mahal (Ornament of the Palace) when Prince Khurram acceded the throne and became … Jahangir’s son Prince Khurram ascended the throne in 1628 as Emperor Shah Jahan. But a soothsayer had predicted before his birth that he would one day become the emperor. His reign is characterized by monumental architectural achievements as much as anything else. He laid emphasis on uniformity and symmetry. It was in the memory of his beloved wife that Shah Jahan built a magnificent monument as a tribute to her, which we today know as the "Taj Mahal". Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. The period of his reign is widely considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture. hope it will help you ️ ️ Though he is credited with constructing many buildings but he sacrificed standard for numbers. Shah Jahan erected many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built in 1632–1654 as a tomb for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal (1 September 1593 – 17 June 1631). This expansive complex is a beautiful example of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan is one of the prominent Mughal emperors. Shah Jahan is the 5th Mughal emperor, coming after Bâbur, Humâyûn, Akbar, and Jahângîr, his father. Architecture in general saw the best of Mughal construction during his time. Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed Taj Mahal, the Jama Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens of Lahore, the Wazir Khan Mosque, and who renovated the Lahore Fort. Historians Shams-i-Siraj gives a long list of buildings of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Shah Jahan whose early name was Khurram was one of the four sons of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Facts. 4. Shah Jahan married several times, but his favorite wife was Arjumand Banu Begum (his second wife) also known as Mumtaz Mahal whom he married in 1612. Very few people had anything bad to say about her and much of what we know comes from Jahanara’s own writings. A huge white marble building of simple, symmetrical plan, it is inlaid with colorful semiprecious materials and is set in an equally beautiful and symmetrical garden. The use of the double dome, the recessed archway inside a rectangular fronton, and parklike surroundings were all favourite devices of Shah Jahān period builders. This angered Shah Jahan’s other sons who rebelled against their brother. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan died on 22 January 1666. Under his reign, the Mughal Empire reached the peak of its cultural glory. One of the greatest achievements of the empire was the ruling of most of India and Pakistan. 5. In this, the white marble mausoleum was placed on a terrace by the edge of the river. He founded a new city called Shahjahanabad. Image: Taj Mahal in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. The iconic Peacock Throne or the Takht-i-taus was the greatest accumulation of precious gemstones in the 17th Century. The Shah Jahan Mosque, also known as the Jamia Masjid of Thatta, is a 17th century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh. Notes on the architectural achievements of Muhammad Tughlaq. The single most important architectural change was the use of marble instead of sandstone. ... City of Jahan Panah: ... Firoz Shah Tughlaq was very fond of architecture. His body was interred at Taj Mahal, next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal, https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/shah-jahan-6737.php, The Hottest Male Celebrities With The Best Abs. Also, the Mughals spread Muslim arts, culture, and religion throughout the empire including other parts of Asia. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Khāṣṣ Mahal, the private apartments of the emperor Shah Jahān in the fort at Agra, Uttar Pradesh state, India, …is as remarkable for its architectural achievements as was that of Akbar. Mumtaz Mahal, an inseparable companion of Shah Jahan, died in 1631, while giving birth to their 14th child. Learn about the history of Mughal Emperor Jahangir, including some of his greatest achievements and his famous father, Akbar the Great, and his equally famous son, Shah Jahan. Sher Shah Suri was born as Farid Khan in 1486 in Sasaram, Rohtas district, Bihar in India. Biography of Shah Jahan (Mughal Emperor) Introduction: Shah Jahan (also Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan) was the fifth Mughal Emperor in India. Shah Jahan was the fifth Mughal Emperor of India, considered to be one of the greatest of the Mughals. In this, the white marble mausoleum was placed on a terrace by the edge of the river. In this most beautiful of the world's tombs, the minutest detail has been carefully thought out and executed with tireless precision. Shah Jahan commissioned … His mother was Princess Nûr Jahân, a woman who had taken power over her husband during the last years of his reign, at a time when he had fallen into the grip of drugs. Jahangir died in late 1627 and Shah Jahan ascended to the throne in early 1628. Shah Jahan and His Architectural Contribution to India 5907 Words | 24 Pages. His reign is chiefly remembered for the beauty and grandeur of the peacock-throne and the Taj Mahal. The land revenue of the Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan was 20.75 million sterling. As the emperor he focused on expanding the vast Mughal Empire and became known for his love of architecture. His mother was a Rajput Princess. Shah Jahan was born as Shah ab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram to Emperor Jahangir and his wife, the Rajput princess Bilquis Makani (Princess Manmati) on 5 January 1592, in Lahore, Punjab (now in Pakistan). Shah Jahān period architecture, Indian building style that flourished under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (reigned 1628–58), its crowning achievement being the magnificent mausoleum at Agra, the Taj Mahal. On his education and training Farid Khan in 1486 in Sasaram, Rohtas district, Bihar India... 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