Up to Yunus Oghuzs this novel Nader Shah transformed the Shahsevan, a nomadic group living around Azerbaijan whose name literally means "shah lover", into a tribal confederacy which defended Iran against the neighbouring Ottomans and Russians. Mohammed Shah and Nadir Shah 1740. [37] Nader approved with the proposal, and the writers of the chancellery, which included the court historian Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, were instructed with sending out orders to the military, clergy and nobility of the nation to summon at the plains. Its [26] In 1722, Russia, led by Peter the Great and further aided by some of the most notable Caucasian regents of the disintegrating Safavid Empire, such as Vakhtang VI, launched the Russo-Iranian War (1722-1723) in which Russia captured swaths of Iran's territories in the North Caucasus, South Caucasus, as well as in northern mainland Iran. Nature endowed him with all the great qualities that make heroes ... His dyed beard made a sharp contrast with his completely gray hair; his natural physique was strong, tall, and his waist was proportional to his growth; his expression was gloomy, with an oblong face, an aquiline nose and a beautiful mouth, but with his lower lip protruding forward. [18] His reforms may have strengthened the country, but they did little to improve Iran's suffering economy. In various official documents, Nader recalled how he, Ottomans, Uzbeks, and Mughals shared a common Turkmen heritage. Encyclopedia of Soviet law By Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons, Page 457, L. Lockhart, «Nadir Shah : A Critical Study Based Mainly Upon Contemporary Sources», W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», p. 48, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 3-4, W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», E. Tucker, «Nadir Shah’s Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran», p. 6, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 16, Rudi Matthee, «Nādir Shāh in Iranian Historiography: Warlord or National Hero?», Restoration of Tahmasp II to the Safavid throne, Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism, The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant, Modern Conflict in the Greater Middle East: A Country-by-Country Guide, "An Outline of the History of Persia During the Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722-1922)", Svat Soucek, a history of inner asia page 195: in 1740 Nader Shah, the new ruler of Iran, crossed the Amu Darya and, accepting the submission of Muhammad Hakim Bi which was then formalized by the acquiescence of Abulfayz Khan himself, proceeded to attack Khiva. Many of the Abdali Afghans subsequently joined his army. He was the son of Mohammed Nadir Shah (1883-1933) a senior member of the Muhamadzai Royal family and commander in chief of the Afghan Army for former king Amanullah Khan, and of Begum Mah Parwar Begum (d. 1941), a Persian-speaking woman. From Nadir Shah's death in 1747 until the communist coup of April 1978, Afghanistan was governed--at least nominally--by Pashtun rulers from the Abdali group of clans. [18] Nader discontinued the policy of paying soldiers based on land tenure. Nader and his mother were among those who were carried off into slavery. [37] Following Nader's suggestion, the group did not "demur", and Hasan-Ali remained silent. [18], Nader's focus on common Turkmen descent was designed to establish a broad political framework that could tie him, more closely than his Safavid predecessors, to both Ottomans and Mughals. Many years later, when he was returning in triumph from his conquest of Delhi, he led the army to his birthplace and made a speech to his generals about his early life of deprivation. Nader reunited the Iranian realm and removed the invaders. Nader was probably brought up as a Shi'a [42] but later espoused the Sunni[43] faith as he gained power and began to push into the Ottoman Empire. Nader Shah had not yet had time to get dressed; Muhammad Quli Khan ran in first and struck him with a great blow of his sword which felled him to the ground; two or three others followed suit; the wretched monarch, covered in his own blood, attempted – but was too weak – to get up, and cried out, ‘Why do you want to kill me? Nader also secured one of the Mughal emperor's daughters, Jahan Afruz Banu Begum, as a bride for his youngest son. Shah Safi II (±1647-1694), a drunkard and recluse, was said to have shut himself up for 7 years in the harem without emerging once. In Khorasan, Nader at first submitted to the local Afghan governor of Mashhad, Malek Mahmud, but then rebelled and built up his own small army. Nadir shah had stormed over the Hindu Kush Mountains into India, which, at that time, was under the rule of the Mughul Empire. The exact figure was not known. So that brings us to the end of this brief account of Nadir Shah’s raid of Delhi. [18] Like the late Safavids he resettled tribes. By 1740, Durrani and his older brother have joined Nader Shah’s forces, among other members of the Abdali clan. After the war, Nadir Khan was made Minister of War and from early 1924 to 1926 he was Afghan Ambassador to France. He imitated their military prowess and—especially later in his reign—their cruelty. Download Nadir Shah Full Books [PDF] [EPUB] [Tuebl] [textbook]. For works benefiting from the latest research see the “More information” section at the bottom of these pages. [46] Nader hoped that "Ja'farism" would be accepted as a fifth school (mazhab) of Sunni Islam and that the Ottomans would allow its adherents to go on the hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca, which was within their territory. Starting from a young age, Napoleon Bonaparte also used to read about and admire Nader Shah. As Shah of Afghanistan Nadir Khan quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khan's reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak[citation needed] while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. Nader decided he needed to regain the initiative as soon as possible to save his position because revolts were already breaking out in Iran. This was a hat with four peaks which symbolised the first four caliphs. These included the murder of the former shah Tahmasp and his family, including the nine-year-old Abbas III. New revolts broke out and Nader crushed them ruthlessly, building towers from his victims' skulls in imitation of his hero Timur. Nader used the pretext of his Afghan enemies taking refuge in India to cross the border and invade the militarily weak but still extremely wealthy far eastern empire,[47] and in a brilliant campaign against the governor of Peshawar he took a small contingent of his forces on a daunting flank march through nearly impassable mountain passes and took the enemy forces positioned at the mouth of the Khyber Pass completely by surprise, utterly beating them despite being outnumbered two-to-one. Member of the French Academy of Sciences, Pierre Bayen wrote about Nader Shah the following: “He was the horror of the Ottoman Empire, the conqueror of India, the ruler of Persia and all of Asia. p. 19 FK Publications. [67] Nader's Indian campaign alerted the British East India Company to the extreme weakness of the Mughal Empire and the possibility of expanding to fill the power vacuum. After growing up in India, Nadir Khan first went to Afghanistan when his grandfather Mohammad Yahya was authorized to return from exile by the British and Abdur Rahman Khan. Nader Shah (en persa: نادر شاه ) (su verdadero nombre era Nader Qoli Beig) (22 de octubre de 1688 - junio de 1747) fue un sah de Persia, fundador de la dinastía afsárida que reinó desde 1736 hasta su muerte. New revolts broke out and Nader crushed them ruthlessly, building towers from his victims' skulls in imitation of his hero Timur. We found 18 entries for Nadir Shah in the United States. (Wikimedia Commons) 7 / 7 . In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Zahir Shah was born on 15 October 1914, in a city quarter called Deh Afghanan (Afghans village) in Kabul, Afghanistan. [35] Adil Shah was deposed within a year. On November 8, 1933, Mohammad Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan was shot and killed by an assassin while taking part in a high school awards ceremony at the royal palace in Kabul, Afghanistan. century that Imam Reza was martyred by poison. Nadir's ancestors were exiled to British India by King Amir Abdul Rahman after King Abdul Rahman realized their aspiration for power. Consequences and Takeaways. The Mughal Empire was already weakened and reeling under the impact of bitter wars of succession of past three decades, after the death of Aurangzeb. The first Durrani ruler, Ahmad Shah, known as the founder of the Afghan nation, united [31], Relations between Nader and the Shah had declined as the latter grew jealous of his general's military successes. He also took the legendary “Koh-i-noor” diamond. During the course of one day (March 22) 20,000 to 30,000 Indians were killed by the Iranian troops and as many as 10,000 women and children were taken as slaves, forcing Mohammad Shah to beg Nader for mercy.[51][50]. [64] The rest of the Iranian territories in the Caucasus, comprising modern-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Dagestan broke away into various khanates. Get full address, contact info, background report and more! [37] The summonses for the people to attend had gone out in November 1735, and they began arriving in January 1736. Nader was crowned Shah of Iran on March 8, 1736, a date his astrologers had chosen as being especially propitious,[40] in attendance of an "exceptionally large assembly" composed of the military, religious and nobility of the nation, as well as the Ottoman ambassador Ali Pasha. Nāder Shāh Afshār or Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه افشار ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November, 1688 [1] or August 6, 1698 [5] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. When … [52] The booty they had collected was loaded on 700 elephants, 4,000 camels, and 12,000 horses. It took Nader fourteen months to crush this uprising. "[54] Soon afterwards, Nader started executing the nobles who had witnessed his son's blinding. In 1849, the British conquered Punjab and the Lahore treaty was proclaimed. In 1732 he forced Tahmasp to abdicate in favour of the Shah's baby son, Abbas III, to whom Nader became regent.[33]. When rebellions broke out in 1743 upon the death of Muhammad Hakim, the shah dispatched the ataliq’s son Muhammad Rahim Bi, who had accompanied him to Iran, to quell them. Nadir Khan was born on 9 April 1883 in Dehradun, British India, in the Musahiban branch of the Royal dynasty of Afghanistan (of the Mohammadzai section of Barakzai Pashtuns). [18][40], In 1741, eight Muslim mullahs and three European and five Armenian priests translated the Koran and the Gospels[clarification needed]. Mohammed Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan Mohammed Nadir Shah (born Mohammad Nadir Khan) reigned as King of Afghanistan from October 15, 1929 until his assassination on November 8, 1933. The commission was supervised by Mīrzā Moḥammad Mahdī Khan Monšī, the court historiographer and author of the Tarikh-e-Jahangoshay-e-Naderi (History of Nader Shah's Wars). Of more consequence and humiliating was the plunder of Delhi by Nadir Shah. Nadir Shah Afshar was a military genius, but he was also a very harsh and suspicious ruler, who blinded his own son. Managed by: Dr. Arshad Khan: Last Updated: October 30, 2014 [75] Joseph Stalin used to read about Nader Shah and admired him, calling him, along with Ivan the Terrible, a teacher. Indeed, it was under the leadership of the first Pashtun ruler, Ahmad Shah, that the nation of Afghanistan began to take shape after centuries of fragmentation and rule by in… Nader Shah was pretty hardcore. For the 20th-century king of Afghanistan, see, A contemporary court portrait of Nader Shah by Mohammad Reza Hendi (c. 1740), now held in London's, First Ottoman campaign and the regain of the Caucasus, North Caucasus, Central Asia, Arabia, and the second Ottoman war, Nader's exact date of birth is unknown but August 6 is the "likeliest" according to Axworthy, p. 17 (and note) and, Tucker, Ernest, "Nadir Shah and the Ja'fari Mazhab reconsidered", in. When his orders had been carried out, however, Nader instantly regretted it, crying out to his courtiers, "What is a father? Maulana Syed Arif Shah Kazmi - Shahadat Bibi Fatima Zahra 05-01-2020 Steel Town Karachi (SM Sajjadi) - Duration: 1:16:09. Despite having a huge army at his disposal, in this campaign Nader showed little of his former military brilliance. Under their leader Mahmud Hotaki, the rebellious Afghans moved westwards against the shah himself and in 1722 they defeated a force at the Battle of Gulnabad and then besieged the capital, Isfahan. The court of Dehli being at this time occupied by the Mahrattas, his messages to the Indian Government were neglected, and one of his messengers was cut. This led to the capture of Ghazni, Kabul, Peshawar, Sindh and Lahore. After growing up in India, Nadir Khan first went to Afghanistan when his grandfather Mohammad Yahya was authorized to return from exile by the British and Abdur Rahman Khan. His father, Emam Qoli, was a herdsman who may also have been a coatmaker. First, in May 1729, he defeated the Abdali Afghans near Herat. After what that man described miracles and pleasures of the heaven, the shah asked: “Are there such things as war and victory over the enemy in paradise?” When the man answered negatively, Nader replied: “How can there be any pleasure then?”.[70]. Nader Shah was well known to the European public of the time. [citation needed]. He has such a strong physique that he often sleeps on a frosty night on bare ground in the open air, wrapping himself only in his cloak and putting a saddle under his head as a pillow. [29] In 1738 Nader Shah besieged and destroyed the last Hotaki seat of power at Kandahar. Click on the View Details button for more information. He became so powerful that he decided to depose the last members of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Iran for over 200 years, and become Shah himself in 1736. Afterwards he became increasingly despotic as his health declined markedly. [37] The small group of close intimates, Nader's friends, included Tahmasp Khan Jalayer and Hasan-Ali Beg Bestami. Shah was proclaimed king on November 8, 1933, within a few hours of his father's assassination, and adopted the title Mutawakkil Ala'llah, Pairaw-i … [32] Nader, furious, saw that the moment had come to ease Tahmasp from power. In the subsequent peace negotiations, the Ottomans refused to acknowledge Ja'farism as a fifth mazhab but they did allow Iranian pilgrims to go on the hajj. Nader suggested to his closest intimates, after a great hunting party on the Moghan plains (presently split between Azerbaijan and Iran), that he should be proclaimed the new king (shah) in place of the young Abbas III. [69] Nader Shah once had a conversation with a holy man about paradise. Nadir Shah: Birthdate: estimated before 1923: Death: Immediate Family: Son of Hazrat Pir Zamin Shah Father of Mir Alam Shah Baba and Mardan Shah Baba Brother of Imam Shah; Mubarak Shah and Sahab Shah. He never boasted of a proud genealogy; on the contrary, he often spoke of his simple origin. The most detailed account of Nader's assassination comes from Père Louis Bazin, Nader's physician at the time of his death, who relied on the eyewitness testimony of Chuki, one of Nader's favourite concubines: Around fifteen of the conspirators were impatient or merely eager to distinguish themselves, and so turned up prematurely at the agreed meeting place. Nadir Khan named a ten-member cabinet, consisting mostly of members of his family, and in September 1930 he called into session a loya jirga of 286 which confirmed his accession to the throne. French orientalist Louis Bazin describes the personality of Nader Shah as follows: “Despite his obscure background, he looked born for the throne. [9] An ethnic Hazara, Abdul Khaliq was immediately apprehended and tortured and then executed by quartering along with most of his relatives including his father and uncle. Nadir had to retaliate with a massacre, which likely claimed some 20K Delhi civilian lives in a span of a few hours. Adil Shah was probably involved in the assassination plot. In private conversations, no one is allowed to talk about government affairs.[72]. He agreed and thus became a figure of national importance. Ashraf fled and Nader finally entered Isfahan, handing it over to Tahmasp in December. [38] In the same month of January 1736, Nader held a qoroltai (a grand meeting in the tradition of Genghis Khan and Timur) on the Moghan plains. His father was Mohammad Yusuf Khan and his mother was Sharaf Sultana Hukumat Begum. He built a new city near Kandahar, which he named "Naderabad". He denounced the treaty, seeking popular support for a war against the Ottomans. He banned certain Shi'a practices which were particularly offensive to Sunnis, such as the cursing of the first three caliphs. Erekle II assumed control over Kartli after Teimuraz II's death, thus unifying the two as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becoming the first Georgian ruler in three centuries to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia,[63] and due to the frantic turn of events in mainland Iran he would be able to maintain its autonomy until the advent of the Iranian Qajar dynasty. It was around 9 th century that Imam Reza was martyred by poison. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Nadir Shah left with loot worth 700 million rupees (even after Sikhs sacked some of them). After sacking its capital at Delhi , he plundered the treasuries of the Mughal emperors , and hauled the wealth westward, over the Hindu Kush , towards his kingdom of Persia. [18] Nader's other primary aim in his religious reforms was to weaken the Safavids further since Shi'a Islam had always been a major element in support for the dynasty. He then besieged Baghdad, as well as Ganja in the northern provinces, earning a Russian alliance against the Ottomans. His neighbors respected him, his enemies were afraid of him, and he lacked only the love of his subjects ”. Nadir faced many insurrections, including the Koh Daman revolt (29 November – 30 June), the Shinwari rebellion (February 1930), operations against Ibrahim Beg (November 1930 – April 1931), the Ghilzai threat (1931), the Darre Khel revolt (November 1932), and disturbances in Khost. Mohammed Nadir Shah (Pashto: محمد نادر شاه – born Mohammed Nadir; 9 April 1883 – 8 November, 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in 1933. 54 ] soon afterwards, Nader managed to convince Turkmens promising help in future, Nader set for... Soon afterwards, Nader started to build an Iranian navy capital Muscat its size and `` abundance of fodder.! … Luckily Nadir Shah took with him the Peacock throne built by Shah Jahan Khan Governor... 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