Forms at the surface, principally in the ocean basins, but also in isolated "hot spots" on the continents. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt, obsidian's composition is extremely felsic. - Definition, History, Facts & Topics, Unconformities in Geology: Definition & Types, Detrital & Chemical Sedimentary Rocks: Definition & Differences, Mid-Ocean Ridge: Definition, Facts, Formation & Example, Mass Movement: Definition, Types & Examples, How Scientists Study Earth's Interior Structure, Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences, DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep, Principles of Physical Science: Certificate Program, General Studies Earth & Space Science: Help & Review, General Studies Health Science: Help & Review, High School Chemistry: Homework Help Resource, Glencoe Chemistry - Matter And Change: Online Textbook Help, CSET Science Subtest I - General Science (215): Practice & Study Guide, FTCE Middle Grades General Science 5-9 (004): Test Practice & Study Guide, FTCE Earth & Space Science 6-12 (008): Test Practice & Study Guide, CSET Science Subtest II Chemistry (218): Practice & Study Guide, SAT Subject Test Physics: Practice and Study Guide, SAT Subject Test Biology: Practice and Study Guide, NY Regents Exam - Chemistry: Test Prep & Practice, What is Basalt? Difference between Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks, Difference between Seltzer, Club Soda, and Tonic Water, Difference between a Broiler, Fryer and Roaster Chicken, Igneous rocks rich in oxygen, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and sodium. How do light-colored igneous rocks differ in composition from dark-colored igneous Mafic lava, before cooling, has a lower viscosity than felsic lava due to its lower silica content. Thus, the basic name of a felsic rock is determined by the rock’s texture. Felsic rocks are composed of minerals such as quartz, orthoclase, muscovite, and feldspars. Mafic lava creates basalt while felsic lava produces andesitic and rhyolite rocks. As water, along with other volatile matter, easily and gradually escapes from mafic lava, volcanic eruptions composed of mafic lava explode less violently compared to some lava of different compositions. Minerals that usually form mafic rocks are clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene, olivine, biotite, and amphibole. Igneous Rocks. Dark-colored igneous rocks are more basaltic (mafic) in composition and contain more iron and magnesium. 5.Either in describing rocks or lava, mafic means that the lava or rock has less silica while felsic implies that the lava or rock has the most silica. mafic. Before mafic lava cools down, it has a low viscosity due to mafic magma’s low silica content. Felsic rocks are mostly light-colored and the most common type is granite. New oceanic lithosphere forms as a result of. Intrusive Intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of a planet, surrounded by way of pre-present rock (called us of a rock); the magma cools slowly and, as a result, these rocks are coarse-grained. 3. Read More on This Topic felsic and mafic rocks When it comes to chemistry, felsic minerals and rocks are at the opposite end of the elemental spectrum as mafic minerals and rocks are. Felsic rocks are composed of high levels of magma, silicate materials, and rocks which are also rich in potassium, oxygen, silicon, and sodium. 6. felsic vs. mafic 20 Terms. - Definition, Types & Process, What is Geology? Geologists use the terms “mafic” and “felsic” to classify rocks into specific groups. Common mafic rocks include basalt, diabase and gabbro. The word “felsic” is a combination of the words “feldspar” and “silica.”. Since the surface of the earth is covered by oceanic and continental crustal materials, granite and basalt are very common. Porphyritic Andesite. A common mafic rock is basalt. Mafic rocks often also contain calcium-rich varieties of plagioclase feldspar. Igneous Rock (textures) 13 Terms. Mafic rocks have about 50 percent silica and high amounts of iron, magnesium, and calcium and are dark in color. Forms high in Bowen's Reaction series: 1. Olivine/pyroxene/Calcic plagioclase rich 4. Here’s a lesson in geology discussing mafic and felsic rocks. Basalt a mafic rock : Granite a felsic rock : 1. - Formation, Properties & Types, What is Limestone? Geologists traditionally divide the compositions of the igneous rocks into four major groups or families. Common mafic rocks include basalt and gabbro. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. BASALT Basalt is an extrusive mafic volcanic rock. Felsic rocks can be produced by metamorphism of both igneous and sedimentary protoliths (e.g., granite and arkose, respectively) and are rich in silicon, sodium (Na), potassium, calcium, aluminum, and lesser amounts of iron and magnesium. Textural terms include: 1. In such cases, it’s customary for the rock to be named after the phenocryst mineral e.g. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... Igneous Rock Texture & Process 8 Terms. This article aims to sift through the rubble and find out how mafic rocks are different from felsic rocks. A dominant component of oceanic crust, basalt is the most abundant volcanic rock. Felsic rocks and magma contain high levels of feldspar and silicon. Common mafic rocks include basalt and gabbro. PORPHYRITIC TEXTURE - an igneous r… The adjective Mafic is also used for minerals that make up these rocks such as biotite, amphibole, and olivine. Igneous rocks 20 Terms. Basalt is a mafic extrusive rock composed mostly of pyroxene, feldspar, and, in some cases, olivine. Scoria has more holes … The low-strain zone is within a 50–100 m wide panel of felsic and mafic schists (samples G05/28, -29; Table 20.1) that can be followed north–south for >1 km. Which of the following igneous rocks crystallizes near the Earth's surface? tennisqueena. Occurrence of igneous rocks can be either intrusive (plutonic) or extrusive (volcanic). So what’s the difference between mafic and felsic? unmetamorphosed rock from which certain metamorphic rocks come from) it may just be called a “felsic schist.”. Mafic rock is commonly contrasted with felsic rock, in which light-coloured minerals predominate. Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by 1. determine texture: coarse-grained (visible crystals) = plutonic, fine-grained (microscopic crystals), or porphyritic (visible crystals in fine groundmass) = volcanic. The term textureapplies to the overall appearance of the rock based onthe size and arrangement of the interlocking crystals. Rocks are host to massive sulfide deposits (Crandon and Pelican River). Minerals that usually form mafic rocks are clinopyroxene and/or orthopyroxene, olivine, biotite, and amphibole. Rhyolite, andesite, and basalt form a series that varies in composition, from felsic to mafic because of an increasing fraction of iron+magnesium rich minerals that darkens the tone. Create your account. nadineklein. 2. determine color/composition: mostly light minerals = felsic; half light, half black (or gray in fine grained rocks) = intermediate; mostly black minerals = mafic; mostly olivine = ultramafic Dark color 2. As nouns the difference between mafic and basalt is that mafic is a rock with such properties while basalt is (mineral) a hard mafic igneous rock of varied mineral content; volcanic in origin, it makes up much of the earth's oceanic crust. Sometimes, felsic volcanic rocks contain small amounts (i.e. Vesicular Basalt. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Igneous rocks and the magma they come from can be classified as mafic and felsic based on their mineral content. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide), usually 70% or more. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Mafic, felsic, and intermediate extrusive rocks. Intrusive rocks also can be categorized consistent with the shape and size of the intrusive body and its relation t… 4.Mafic lava creates basalt while felsic lava produces andesitic and rhyolite rocks. Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and ferric. Where does the lithosphere of the Atlantic Ocean... Why does the moon have more craters than earth? Those who know the symbols of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) will easily understand the logic behind the word mafic rocks. The term roughly corresponds to the older basic rock class. In terms of chemistry, this means that mafic and felsic minerals and rocks are at opposite ends of the elemental spectrum. On the other hand, explosive eruptions are typical of the felsic or rhyolite rock type. More general terms for these rocks are mafic, felsic, and intermediate. 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