L’université zaytounienne et la société tunisienne, It is built on a square base and has proportions similar to that of Roman lighthouses or Syrian bell-towers. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} The great mosque of Damascus: studies on the makings of an Umayyad visual culture by: Flood, Finbarr Barry 1965- Published: (2001) The great mosque of Isfahan by: Grabar, Oleg 1929-2011 Published: (1990) Did you know… We have over 220 college The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. [85] Its main adornment is a frieze that crowns calligraphy, the latter surmounted by a line of pointed openwork merlons, features an inscription in flowery kufic character carved on the background of interlacing plants. Services. The latest, dated the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (mostly dating from the time of the Muradid Beys), are distinguished by an epigraphic decoration consists of long black and red texts on olive green background to those painted from 1618 to 1619, under the reign of Murad I Bey (1613–1631), while those back to the eighteenth century have inscriptions in white naskhi script on an orange background. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (جامع القيروان الأكبر), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (Arabic: جامع عقبة بن نافع ‎‎), is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.. One may enter the prayer hall either from the courtyard or from two side doorways. This is the least expensive place to buy … Many of Tunisia's other major mosques, including the Great Mosque of Sousse, took their inspiration from Kairouan's Great Mosque … [39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century. By the founder of Kairouan it was built, he was the Sidi Oqba, for that as the Sidi Oqba Mosque is also known the mosque. [22][23] At the same time, the mihrab's ribbed dome was raised on squinches. Kairouan’s rampart-enclosed medina (75 acres [30 hectares]) contains the Great Mosque, with a 115-foot- (35-metre-) high minaret. It is surrounded at its upper part by 139 lusterware tiles (with a metallic sheen), each one is 21.1 centimetres square and they are arranged on the diagonal in a chessboard pattern. There are large rents for the maintenance of teachers. Lectures by Walter Lewin. 45, n°1, pages 103 and 105, 2007, Okba Ibn Nafaa Mosque in Kairouan (Mosque of Uqba) website, Panoramic visit of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Sacred Destinations : Great Mosque of Kairouan, Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara Mediterranean Heritage), Video of the mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Mosque_of_Kairouan&oldid=995123092, 7th-century establishments in the Umayyad Caliphate, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with dead external links from April 2019, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enclosure and gates of the Mosque of Uqba, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 10:21. The Great Mosque of Kairouan has become one of the most prominent places of worship in the Muslim world due to its historical significance and architectural influence. [60], The hypostyle hall is divided into 17 aisles of eight bays, the central nave is wider, as well as the bay along the wall of the qibla. He then made the mihrab. imaginable degree, area of page 33. page 404, Henri Saladin, Tunis et Kairouan, There are also many gates. In the history of Art, its three-storey minaret is considered such a masterpiece and a model among the most prestigious monuments of Muslim architecture. [77], The mihrab, which indicates the Qibla (direction of Mecca), in front of which stands the imam during the prayer, is located in the middle of the southern wall of the prayer hall. The bay along the qibla wall and main longitudinal axis form a T-formation, which was an arrangement typical of the region. The horizontal sundial located in the courtyard, One of the courtyard's capitals surmounted by a small vertical sundial, Detail of arches and columns of the north portico of the courtyard, View of the impluvium which collects the rainwater and feeds the underground cistern, The minaret, which occupies the centre of the northern façade of the complex's enclosure, is 31.5 metres tall and is seated on a square base of 10.7 metres on each side. Select a subject to preview related courses: The Great Mosque of Kairouan has influenced North African architecture. It is a hypostyle hall with a flat roof; however there are domes above the mihrab and entry. 3D computer modeling of the Great mosquee of Kairouan-ar.svg 1,120 × 580; 1.21 MB [82] Among all the pulpits of the Muslim world, it is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today. Anyone can earn This was the same time as the reign of Charlemagne. The vast complex boasts fortress-like walls enclosing a prayer hall and a huge marble courtyard. Among the Western travelers, poets and writers who visited Kairouan, some of them leave impressions and testimonies sometimes tinged with emotion or admiration on the mosque. Carefully executed in relief, it represents one of the most beautiful epigraphic bands of Islamic art. The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 metres long and 72 metres in width. [12] The front façade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement). The only component that might have been saved was the mihrab. This dome, whose construction goes back to the first half of the ninth century (towards 836), is one of the oldest and most remarkable domes in the western Islamic world. Extensive works under the Aghlabids two centuries later (9th Cent.AD/CE) gave the mosque its present aspect. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. The niche of the mihrab is two metres long, 4.5 metres high and 1.6 metres deep. Though the mosque is now near the northwest city ramparts established in the eleventh century, when Sidi Okba founded Kairouan, it was probably closer to the center of town, near what was the governor’s residence and the main thoroughfare, a symbolically prominent and physical visible part of the city… [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. The fluted dome above the mihrab is supported by decorated stone squinches. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. [48] The minaret, in its present aspect, dates largely from the early ninth century, about 836 AD. It has served as a model for others, such as the Zaytuna Mosque located in Tunis. [48] It is located inside the enclosure and does not have direct access from the outside. [67] The other doors of the prayer hall, some of which date from the time of the Hafsids,[68] are distinguished by their decoration which consists essentially of geometric patterns (hexagonal, octagonal, rectangular patterns, etc.). The minaret served as a watchtower, as well as to call the faithful to prayer. [24] Around 862–863, Emir Abu Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, and added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. English: Interior view of the prayer hall of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia. Kairouan (from UNESCO) Next lesson. History of the Great Mosque of Kairouan The first mosque was built in Kairouan in 670, shortly after the arrival of Muslim Arabs to North Africa. »[22]. [18] In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments[19] took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid ibn Hatim. [50] The greater part of the minaret dates from the time of the Aghlabid princes in the ninth century. [60] Some capitals were carved for the mosque, but others come from Roman or Byzantine buildings (dating from the second to sixth century) and were reused. The upper edge of the minbar ramp is adorned with a rich and graceful vegetal decoration composed of alternately arranged foliated scrolls, each one containing a spread vine-leaf and a cluster of grapes. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.[1]. The latter, which its hemispherical cap is cut by 24 concave grooves radiating around the top,[75] is based on ridged horns shaped shell and a drum pierced by eight circular windows which are inserted between sixteen niches grouped by two. [44], View of the courtyard on the side of the prayer hall facade, Porch topped with a ribbed dome rising in the middle of the south portico of the courtyard, Courtyard seen from one of the arched galleries, Portico located on the eastern side of the courtyard, Interior view of the eastern portico of the courtyard, Interior view of the western portico of the courtyard. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, The Role of Supervisors in Preventing Sexual Harassment, Key Issues of Sexual Harassment for Supervisors, The Effects of Sexual Harassment on Employees, Key Issues of Sexual Harassment for Employees, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. It is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, and is a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb. Those in white marble come from Italy,[60] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red porphyry imported from Egypt,[73] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia. It is the oldest minaret in the Muslim world,[53][54] and it is also the world's oldest minaret still standing. The horseshoe arch of the mihrab, stilted and broken at the top, rest on two columns of red marble with yellow veins, which surmounted with Byzantine style capitals that carry two crossbeams carved with floral patterns, each one is decorated with a Kufic inscription in relief. The intermediary area, the dodecagonal drum of the dome, is pierced by sixteen small rectangular windows set into rounded niches. Several centuries after its founding, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the subject of numerous descriptions by Arab historians and geographers in the Middle Ages. 's' : ''}}. Linda Kay Davidson and David Martin Gitlitz, Minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Coupole du mihrab de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (Qantara). This reflects the fact that, unlike the rest of the mosque, the enclosure has undergone significant changes to ensure the stability of the building (adding many buttresses). »[36], Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (gate of water) located on the western façade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults. [35] Early in the twentieth century, the Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke describes his admiration for the impressive minaret: « Is there a more beautiful than this still preserved old tower, the minaret, in Islamic architecture? Learn about its unique plan and influential design that was the model for later mosques in the region. The foundation of Kairouan dates to about the year 670 when the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi of Caliph Mu'awiya selected a site in the middle of a dense forest, then infested with wild beasts and reptiles, as the location of a military post for the conquest of the West. The first mosque constructed on this site in Kairouan, Tunisia was commissioned by Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 AD (the year 50 according to the Islamic calendar) at … The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[86]. Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. Stephen has master's degrees in both architecture and city planning and has taught architecture design studios. Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 (the year 50 according to the Islamic calendar) at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square metres and it is one of the oldest places of worship … Discover the architectural wonder and historical significance of this place of worship. [39], Wall and porches on the west facade (south side), Close view of one of the entrances of the west facade, View of the middle of the southern facade, Gate of Bab Lalla Rihana (late thirteenth century), Close view of the lower part of Bab Lalla Rihana, Blind arcade decorating the upper part of Bab Lalla Rihana. The mosque has great importance historically because it is the first mosque in the first Muslim town in the West. [49] The first and second stories are surmounted by rounded merlons which are pierced by arrowslits. [2] Its perimeter, of about 405 metres (1,329 ft), contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a marble-paved courtyard and a square minaret. Formerly, the city of Kamounia was located where Kairouan now stands. It was built by the founder of Kairouan, Sidi Oqba (the mosque is also known as the Sidi Oqba Mosque). The coating around them is decorated with blue plant motifs dating from the eighteenth century or the first half of the nineteenth century. Introduction:- The Mosque of Uqba also known as the Great Mosque of Kairouan, is an early example of a hypostyle mosque that also reflects how pre-Islamic and eastern Islamic art and motifs were incorporated into the religious architecture of Islamic North Africa. Although it has existed for more than eleven centuries, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag. [49], The door giving access to the minaret is framed by a lintel and jambs made of recycled carved friezes of antique origin. It's 32-meter minaret is located near the middle of the north side of the courtyard. In 1967, major restoration works, executed during five years and conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Archeology and Art, were achieved throughout the monument, and were ended with an official reopening of the mosque during the celebration of the Mawlid of 1972.[30]. What Can You Do With a Masters in History? Get access risk-free for 30 days, [83] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). The minbar, situated on the right of the mihrab, is used by the imam during the Friday or Eids sermons, is a staircase-shaped pulpit with an upper seat, reached by eleven steps, and measuring 3.93 metres' length to 3.31 metres in height. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? As this is the place where we worship Almighty Allah (SWT), it is understandable that we attach so much importance to a mosque. Where Can You Meet Other Homeschool Parents? [60] Although the shafts are of varying heights, the columns are ingeniously arranged to support fallen arches harmoniously. The university, consisting of scholars who taught in the mosque, was a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences. Editions Henri Laurens, [58][76] The niches are covered with carved stone panels, finely adorned with characteristic geometric, vegetal and floral patterns of the Aghlabid decorative repertoire: shells, cusped arches, rosettes, vine-leaf, etc. [8] Its role at the time can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. In 863 by the Emir Abou Ibrahim Ahmad was built the current mosque. These tiles are mainly decorated with floral and plant motifs (stylised flowers, palm leaves and asymmetrical leaves on bottom hatch and checkered) belong to two series: one polychrome characterised by a greater richness of tones ranging from light gold to light, dark or ocher yellow, and from brick-red to brown lacquer, the other monochrome is a beautiful luster that goes from smoked gold to green gold. page 118, Mahmud Abd al-Mawla, [26], The current state of the mosque can be traced back to the Aghlabid period—no element is earlier than the ninth century besides the mihrab—except for some partial restorations and a few later additions made in 1025 during the Zirid period,[27] 1248 and 1293–1294 under the reign of the Hafsids,[28] 1618 at the time of Muradid beys,[29] and in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The maqsura, located near the minbar, consists of a fence bounding a private enclosure that allows the sovereign and his senior officials to follow the solemn prayer of Friday without mingling with the faithful. Considered as the oldest example of concave mihrab, it dates in its present state to 862–863 AD.[79]. The Great Mosque of Cordoba. Their colorful multitude gives the eye the impression of unlimited". The first mosque constructed on this site in Kairouan, Tunisia was commissioned by Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670. It is a cedar wood fence finely sculpted and carved on three sides with various geometric motifs measuring 2.8 metres tall, eight metres long and six metres wide. This valuable collection, observed from the late nineteenth century by the French orientalists Octave Houdas and René Basset who mention in their report on their scientific mission in Tunisia published in the Journal of African correspondence in 1882, comprises according to the inventory established at the time of the Hafsids (circa 1293–1294) several Qur'ans and books of fiqh that concern mainly the Maliki fiqh and its sources. Sort by: Top Voted. [50] There are stone blocks from the Roman period that bear Latin inscriptions. Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides Â». In 836, Ziyadat Allah rebuilt the sanctuary, and in 856 a double-arcade was added to the sanctuary. [84] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab. "Soha Gaafar et Marwa Mourad, « La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, un maillon clé dans l'histoire de l'architecture Â», Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides Â», pp. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa; its perimeter is almost equal to 405 metres (1,328 feet). The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. A portico with double row of arches precede the spacious prayer hall, which takes the shape of a rectangle of 70.6 metres in width and 37.5 metres' depth. How to Be Successful in College: Avoid Debt & Remedial Courses, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed[15] during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. One other outstanding feature of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is that its minaret is the world’s oldest surviving minaret. However, it has a scattered building history. Their edges, obtained from the lower parts of ancient cored columns,[47] support the string grooves back the buckets. [90], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}35°40′53″N 10°06′14″E / 35.68139°N 10.10389°E / 35.68139; 10.10389, Wilfrid Knapp and Nevill Barbour, North West Africa : a political and economic survey, It was built in stages over the course of almost two centuries. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. [62], The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[63] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Human factors including Hilalian's invasions in 449 AH (1057 AD) led to the decline of the city and halted development. The portico on the south side of the courtyard, near the prayer hall, includes in its middle a large dressed stone pointed horseshoe arch which rests on ancient columns of white veined marble with Corinthian capitals. Paris, 1908, [11] This location corresponded originally to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. If you are travelling to Tunisia for religion and culture, don’t miss the Kairouan great Mosque, which is the oldest Mosque in North Africa. The Great Mosque of Kairouan. A brief discussion of the Great Mosque at Kairouan. This famous place of worship has two main elements, including the pillared prayer hall and the courtyard. But the mosque at Kairouan was much grander than anything being built in Northern … The wall surrounding the complex is buttressed from the exterior and contains many towers and bastions. It is formed by an oven-shaped niche framed by two marble columns and topped by a painted wooden half-cupola. study [89], In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. courses that prepare you to earn The wall of the mihrab is covered with 28 panels of white marble, carved and pierced, which have a wide variety of plant and geometric patterns including the stylised grape leaf, the flower and the shell. Influencing later mosques in the region, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in the first town of Islam in the West. The courtyard façade (or south façade) of the tower is pierced with windows that provide light and ventilation,[52] while the other three façades—facing north, east and west—are pierced with small openings in the form of arrowslits. The history of the Great Mosque of Kairouan: In 670 in Kairouan was built the first mosque, to North Africa of Muslim Arabs shortly after the arrival. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. It was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'manin … Christian Colleges with Architecture Majors, Bachelor of Architecture Vs. BS in Architecture: How to Choose. [7] The fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and expand. [20], Under the rule of the Aghlabid dynasty, Kairouan was at its apogee, and the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. Dating back to 670 CE, The Great Mosque of Kairouan represents one of the oldest and most influential places of worship in the Muslim world. The sanctuary is 137 by 37 meters and there are 17 naves and 8 bays. The Great Mosque of Kairouan: Full of history - See 528 traveller reviews, 796 candid photos, and great deals for Kairouan, Tunisia, at Tripadvisor. In the courtyard there are also several water wells some of which are placed side by side. If there is any building that is venerated and treated with so much reverence in Islam, it is the mosque. Among the authors who have written on the subject and whose stories have survived[31] are Al-Bakri (Andalusian geographer and historian who died in 1094 and who devoted a sufficiently detailed account of the history of the mosque in his book Description of Septentrional Africa), Al-Nuwayri (historian who died in Egypt, 1332) and Ibn Nagi (scholar and historian of Kairouan who died around 1435). This mosque was founded around the year 670 A.D.; it is the first mosque in North Africa and the most famous one. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. 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Tolkien: Biography, Books & Poems, Joyce Carol Oates: Biography, Books & Short Stories, Saul Bellow: Biography, Novels & Short Stories, Quiz & Worksheet - Characteristics of String Quartets, Quiz & Worksheet - Bel Canto Style & Technique, Quiz & Worksheet - Singing & Polyphony in the Middle Ages & Renaissance, 20th Century British Literature: Tutoring Solution, World Literature: Drama: Tutoring Solution, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. All rights reserved. Over the next 30 years, several additions and partial reconstructions were made. éditions Maison Tiers-Monde, The columns with their Roman and Byzantine capitols both inside the prayer hall and surrounding the courtyard comprise the largest collection in any Muslim building. The building is composed of a courtyard and prayer hall to the southeast. Name : Great Mosque of Kairouan Place : Kairouan, Tunisia Construction date/period : AH 50/AD 670; completely renovated in AH 221/AD 836; mihrāb and minbar built in AH 247/AD 862; prayer hall enlarged by three bays and porticos added in 875 Construction materials : original: clay bricks, palm tree trunks, … Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. [13] Despite the austere façades, the rhythmic patterns of buttresses and towering porches, some surmounted by cupolas, give the sanctuary a sense of striking sober grandeur. Structurally given the soft grounds subject to compaction, the buttressed towers added stability to the entire mosque. The mosque is about 70 by 125 meters and is an irregular rectangle in plan. Surprisingly, the complex includes the largest collection of Roman and Byzantine capitols compared to any other Muslim building in the world. 69–77. 1–38, History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, Great Mosque of Kairouan (discoverislamicart.org), Great Mosque of Kairouan – Kairouan, Tunisia, Kairouan – UNESCO World Heritage Centre, The Great Mosque (kairouan-cci2009.nat.tn). [45] The northern part of the courtyard is paved with flagstones while the rest of the floor is almost entirely composed of white marble slabs. Dates in its present aspect, dates largely from the ninth century, dodecagonal..., creating an irregular plan [ 50 ] there are domes above the cladding. The property of their respective owners if there is an irregular rectangle in plan and are! The buckets hall and a massive square minaret other outstanding feature of the city and development. A harmonious structure and a massive square minaret lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams hint there! 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