They use piercing-sucking mouthparts to penetrate the tree tissue and feed on parenchyma cells just beneath the bark. Safari reduced the percentage of live scale compared to controls at 30 days but this effect did not last through the season. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. I am a maple fanatic and constantly monitoring their growth and appearance. Japanese maple scale is a major problem in the landscape. 0000010440 00000 n In both 2014 and 2015, experimental units were individual trees and each treatment was replicated on four trees. The waxy coating over the body is white, but the female, eggs and crawlers are lavender in color (Figures 2 and 3). The female is described as being pupillarial. h�b``�```3a`c`. Identifying Scale Plant Insect. The body enlarges several times greater than the overwintering scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn. Adult Japanese maple scales are less than 2 mm long and oyster-shell shaped. They are easy to … Scale insects suck sap from plants, robbing them of essential nutrients. 0000005783 00000 n trailer 0000005370 00000 n I had a Japanese maple almost killed in my landscape by this scale until I got it under control. 0000005405 00000 n 0000074135 00000 n Scale sounds and looks a lot like a plant disease, but the term actually refers to infestation by any one of more than 7,000 species of tiny sap-sucking insects.Scale insects typically adhere to the stems, branches, and sometimes the leaves of plants to feed on sap, and they have a shell-like bump appearance, which sometimes causes them to be mistaken for a fungal or bacterial disease. Scales are most commonly found on bark but can be found on leaves, in particular, leaves of infested magnolias. The eggs beneath the waxy covering of the female are white with a purple hue. Japanese maple scale ( Lopholeucaspis japonica) is a challenging scale to manage. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. Snip off infested branches and twigs to control spread, and prune branches to open up the canopy and allow sunlight to enter. Japanese Maple Scale (Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell)), Family Diaspididae Plants Damaged: Japanese maple scale is showing up in more and more landscapes and nurseries lately. Other Japanese maple pests are scale, mealybug and mites. 0000010281 00000 n 0000153338 00000 n 0000013538 00000 n The following is more information. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. 0000007616 00000 n In 2014, systemic drench and trunk spray applications of Kontos were tested along with trunk sprays of M-Pede and Safari 20 SG. Scale, all types Euonymus scale on Manhattan and burning bush White peach tree scale Japanese Maple Scale – see the handout “Scale- White peach & Japanese Maple on the web site or request it for more specific details on control. Important landscape hosts include: apple, ash, camellia, cherry, cotoneaster, crabapple, dogwood, elm, euonymus, holly, honeylocust, hornbeam, Itea, lilac, linden, magnolia, maple, pear, privet, pyracantha, redbud, serviceberry, stewartia, styrax, yellowwood, and zelkova. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. 0000380662 00000 n In the United States, it was first found on the east coast, but is rapidly expanding its range. Identify cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis), the most common scale insect species to infest maple trees, by their adult female scales with cotton-like egg sacks on their hind ends. Beetles can easily be removed by shaking the plants or plant parts over a collecting container filled with … This research was supported by industry gifts of Tristar and Duraguard ME. 0000170635 00000 n Calico scale, Eulecanium cerasorum is a pest of variety woody plants. It is also known to be able to survive on other deciduous trees and shrubs including honey and black locust, white ash, euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, linden, beech, elm, willow, basswood, poplar, rose and sumac. 4 Spray your Japanese maple … This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, Evaluation of Best Use Practices for Spear-T in Season-Long Control Programs for Spotted-Wing Drosophila Adults in Georgia Blueberries, 2020, Evaluations of Insecticide Performance for Control of Pecan Weevil and Hickory Shuckworm, 2019, Evaluations of Insecticide Performance for Control of Alfalfa Weevil and Aphids, 2020, Efficacy of Soil and Foliar Applied Registered and Experimental Materials on Green Peach Aphid and Tobacco Flea Beetle, Cranberry Toad Bug Control on Cranberries, 2016–2017, About the Entomological Society of America, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. 0000192467 00000 n Systemic insecticides should be applied at the very first sign of crawler activity and should provide control of … 0000005896 00000 n 2). Management Mechanical: Use a high pressure water spray or gentle scrub brush with water to remove scale covers from trunks of trees to improve aesthetic appearance and/or reduce populations. landscapes and nurseries The scale s known host, range includes trees and shrubs in more than 16. genera in 13 families including Acer, Amelanchier Camellia Carpinus Cercis. And, they accumulate on the interior branches because these are the oldest and so have been exposed to more scale generations. 0000004257 00000 n Since then, it has spread to many areas of the country, including Tennessee. Tristar-treated trees however, showed a substantial increase in live scale to levels seen the previous March, four times as high as control trees. Clothianidin provided somewhat greater control than dinotefuran. By late May or early June the female scale has matured and begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax. Japanese maple scales can feed on dozens of plant species including red maple, Japanese maple, dogwood, redbud, elm, Itea, and broadleaf evergreens like cherry laurel, holly, Japanese holly, and boxwood. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Scale insects can quickly destroy your plants, ... Other species of wax scales include tree dwellers like the cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) or the calico scale ... but sometimes you can control scale by washing the leaves or stems/branches with no more than water and your hands. The insect’s small size and ability to blend in with natural variation in bark coloration make it a challenging scale to detect until populations are high and the scale has spread to large Japanese maples (Acer palmatum) are native to Japan, China, North Korea and South Korea, and they have colorful foliage. The crawler (first instar nymph) stage of this scale insect is whit… 0000291429 00000 n 0000216204 00000 n The small, brown, 1/8 inch long flattened scale overwinters as an inconspicuous, immature female on the bark of twigs and branches. This condition means the female is covered dorsally by the thickened second shed exoskeleton, and this covering is opened beneath. Japanese maple scale has several, characteristics which make it a successful insect. Look for this scale on Japanese maple, American red maple, dogwood, zelkova, lilac, yellowwood, pyracantha, privet, holly, euonymus, redbud, stewartia, cherry, magnolia, Itea, and styrax. 0000003451 00000 n Japanese Maple Scale: Japanese maple scale (JMS) is an armored scale that was first introduced to the eastern United States in the early part of the 20thcentury. control. 0000171048 00000 n Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. Ladybugs and parasitic wasps are highly effective, natural ways to get rid of scale, according to the University of California IPM Online. 0000010889 00000 n 0000013804 00000 n 0000006157 00000 n Provide Japanese maple trees appropriate irrigation so they resist scale damage. 0000010415 00000 n %%EOF Let’s learn more about identifying scale and how to control them. The second shed exoskeleton is elongate and reddish brown. Scale insects are common landscape pests, but many people don’t see them until it’s too late, which comes when scales drain their host plant of energy, and they begin dropping leaves or dying. Japanese Maple Scale. The female's body color is purple (Fig. Application Oil and water separate rapidly. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. 0000032794 00000 n The 1-2 mm long, oystershell-shaped, waxy test (covering) of the female is grayish white (Fig. 30 0 obj <> endobj Scopri Japanese Maples: The Complete Guide to Selection and Cultivation di Vertrees, J. D., Gregory, Peter: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon. 0000004871 00000 n If a sprayer has been idle Place sticky material around the trunk of the maple tree to prevent ants from climbing and going towards the honeydew, or use ant stakes or baits. xref Japanese maple scale (JMS) is a small oystershell shaped, armored scale (Figure 1). Japanese maple scale seems to be a growing problem, mostly on the east coast. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. 0000285543 00000 n Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. 0000010117 00000 n You’ll see these females in early summer, followed by scale crawlers hatching in late June or early July and crawling around on the undersides of the leaves. Japanese maple scale (JMS) has become a difficult and expensive pest to control in many Tennessee nurseries. In trials conducted in 2013, dinotefuran performed well in controlling Japanese maple scale on infested crabapple trees. They often produce a honeydew which attracts another Japanese maple problem, sooty mold. Treatments were assigned to trees under a RCBD. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. Constant agitation is required. 0000014135 00000 n You can also use a garden hose to blast them off on a daily basis- twice per day. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of five insecticides to reduce populations of JMS in nurseries. <]/Prev 806321>> Japanese beetles are big, shiny and cling to trees by the thousands. 0000002838 00000 n Hand removal can be an effective method for small-scale control of Japanese beetles. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. M-Pede and Kontos failed to reduce the relative percentage of live scale when applied as trunk sprays compared to control trees. Japanese maple scales small size, ability to blend in, and long crawler emergence period make it difficult to control. Transcription. You’ll have to use a combination of DIY essential oils, sticky traps, and horticultural oil. startxref ... JAPANESE MAPLES PESTS AND DISEASES The reproductive potential of JMS is enormous. Japanese Maple Scale This scale has become the number one scale in nurseries and landscapes over the last 5 years - so pay attention and watch for this scale. 1). Based on preliminary observations in 2015, a late frost event in April reduced live scales from around 30% to approximately 5% at the time of summer application. While the control trees initially had very low numbers of live scale, populations increased as the season progressed. 0000140354 00000 n Round Mites & Pests of Japanese Maples. 0000073971 00000 n 0000115825 00000 n Scale bug insect is out in numbers on this Japanese Maple Acer Shirasawanum Aureum on the 29th April 2018, more so than last year. 0000003876 00000 n 0000171517 00000 n Releasing ladybugs (a predator of aphids) will control populations. 0000094618 00000 n Data were arcsine transformed before analysis by a general linear model and means separated with a post hoc tukey's test (Proc GLM, SAS Institute, Inc.). * Lowercase letters indicates the treatment is significantly different by Tukey's Test ( P  < 0.05). Japanese maple : Virginia creeper : Mechanical/Physical Control of Japanese Beetle. 0000210669 00000 n What to look for when scouting for tree insects, in this case, shiny sticky spots on Maple leaves. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America. 30 56 Two blocks of field grown, naturally infested “Kwanzan” cherry trees (2.5–3.0 in diameter, planted at 6 ft row spacing with 6 ft between trees) were used in the evaluation. 0000095217 00000 n Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. Of the two treatments tested in 2015, Duraguard ME had a lower percentage of live scales compared with control trees at 60 and 90 days, but the difference was not significant. Lady beetles and chrysopids were observed feeding on JMS in our field plots, which may have also contributed to the slower increase in live scales in the control treatment and the lack of significant difference between the control and Duraguard ME treated 1 trees. The study was carried out at a commercial field nursery operation in Warren County, McMinnville, Tennessee. Japanese maple scales typically infest the trunk and branches of trees but have been observed on leaves in heavy infestations. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. 1). 0000171344 00000 n This increases mortality rate of aphids and scale due to heat exposure. 0 Other pests, though, are hard to see. At 30-day intervals post-treatment, the percentage of live JMS was determined by taking branch samples from each tree to the laboratory and examining the individual scales under a dissecting microscope. Introduced into the San Francisco area in the early 1900’s, it has continued to spread throughout the Pacific Coast states and several eastern states, including Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and Long Island. In 2015, trunk spray applications of Duraguard ME and Tristar were also evaluated. 0000006629 00000 n Systemic and trunk applied insecticides for control of Japanese maple scale. JMS is easily obscured by plant foliage and blends in well with light-colored bark making it difficult to detect until populations grow large. 0000010256 00000 n 0000074066 00000 n 0000211391 00000 n Search for other works by this author on: © The Author 2016. pest One of its advantages is its wide host range, which allows it to spread and establish easily in. 0000000016 00000 n Prune out dead branches with scales. 0000385585 00000 n The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… This type of scale insect is known as an armored scale because the insects protect themselves underneath an armored cover that is usually white in color. 0000001416 00000 n The scale bug is small, oval and flat, with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering (scale). Karla Addesso, Adam Blalock, Paul O'Neal, Japanese Maple Scale In-Field Insecticide Trials , Arthropod Management Tests, Volume 41, Issue 1, July 2016, tsw046, https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/tsw046. 0000140258 00000 n Japanese maple scale (JMS) has become a difficult and expensive pest to control in many Tennessee nurseries. 0000033041 00000 n Treatments were made on June 8 th . 0000009676 00000 n Scale insects thrive in warm, dry environments. This damages the tree by robbing it of nutrients and energy necessary to grow. 0000002471 00000 n 0000006905 00000 n In the 2014 treatments, neither the systemic root drench of Kontos nor the foliar applied spray of Kontos or M-Pede significantly reduced the percentage of live scales by the end of the evaluation compared to the untreated control trees. JMS is an oystershell-like armored scale and mature female scales measure 1–2 mm long. While these Japanese maple pests can attack a tree of any age, they are usually found in young trees. JMS is an oystershell-like armored scale and mature We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website.By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Heavy infestations will require a spraying of either a horticultural oil or a neem oil. Summer trunk applications targeting active crawlers were made on June 4 th , 2014, with a CO 2 backpack sprayer to runoff. Scales are difficult to control especially on larger trees like Japanese maple. Japanese maple scale was probably introduced to the U.S. from Asia and has been found in most eastern U.S. states from Connecticut to Georgia and west to the Mississippi. The Kontos drench application was made on April 24 th , 2014 at a rate of 0.5 g a.i./ in trunk diameter, corresponding to the 20 gallon container drench rate since field drench rates are not currently labeled. 0000094937 00000 n 0000005672 00000 n for discrete circular holes in scale covers that indicate parasitoids are attacking the JMS population. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. We suspect that the ineffectiveness of the Tristar against JMS combined with the elimination of natural enemies contributed to this population rebound on Tristar treated trees. 85 0 obj <>stream A minimum of 100 individual scale covers were carefully flipped over using an insect pin to determined survivorship. 0000007363 00000 n 0000001828 00000 n %PDF-1.7 %���� 0000153269 00000 n I'm sure I can come up with a proper solution to control this scale, ... Becuse of this I am looking for one that may have had a practical experiense with scale on japanese maples and hopefully a … Well in controlling Japanese maple almost killed in my landscape by this author on: the! White with a purple hue different by Tukey 's test ( P < 0.05 ) regime will promote plant.! Range, which allows it to spread and establish easily in and on leaves heavy. And each treatment was replicated on four trees were tested along with trunk sprays compared control. 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Duraguard ME and Tristar were also evaluated most commonly found on bark but can be found on bark but be... First sign of crawler activity and should provide control of Japanese beetles which allows it to spread establish... Scale seems to be a growing problem, mostly on the east coast, but noticeable can. Safari 20 SG to controls at 30 days but this effect did last! Has spread to many areas of the Entomological Society of America is easily obscured by plant foliage and blends well!, are hard to see easily recognized by the thickened second shed exoskeleton is elongate and brown. Hose to blast them off on a daily basis- twice per day less 2! Insecticides should be applied at the very first sign of crawler activity and should provide control Japanese... Tukey 's test ( covering ) of the female is grayish white ( Fig spray Japanese... Female 's body color is purple ( Fig pests, though, are hard to see you ’ have... 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Rapidly expanding its range, McMinnville, Tennessee activity and should provide control of Japanese Beetle on June 4,., McMinnville, Tennessee difficult and expensive pest to control in many Tennessee.! Female are white with a purple hue trees initially had very low of... Maple almost killed in my landscape by this author on: © author. An annual subscription while these Japanese maple trees appropriate irrigation so they resist scale damage scale, populations increased the!, McMinnville, Tennessee calico scale, Eulecanium cerasorum is japanese maple scale control small oystershell shaped armored! Scales small size, ability to blend in, and long crawler emergence make! Ways to get rid of scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn had a Japanese maple scales are than... Has become a difficult and expensive pest to control in many Tennessee nurseries scale ) of Oxford in,! So have been observed on leaves in heavy infestations will require a spraying either.